Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program: Idaho
Education, Research and Technical Assistance for Managing Our Natural Resources

Idaho Staff Member


Dr. David Ausband

David Ausband

Assistant Unit Leader
Phone: (208) 885 - 1172
Email: dausband@usgs.gov
Faculty Email: dausband@uidaho.edu

Education

  • Ph D University of Montana 2015
  • MS University of Montana 2005
  • BS University of Montana 2003

Biography

Dr. Ausband received his Msc and PhD from the University of Montana and was a Senior Wildlife Research Biologist for the Idaho Department of Fish and Game before joining the Idaho Unit in 2018. He began his research career studying snowshoe hares and carnivore reintroductions such as those for swift foxes and gray wolves in the western U.S. Currently, his research program focuses largely on carnivore ecology, management, and conservation. Additionally, when sought out by collaborators, he conducts research on various topics of pressing management needs. He collaborates widely with state, federal, and tribal wildlife agencies on research that provides both applied and basic inferences. Additionally, he provides research leadership by maintaining a long-term research program on gray wolves whose questions encompass the behavioral ecology of cooperative breeders, harvest management, population monitoring, and population ecology. Dr. Ausband teaches graduate courses in Advanced Fish and Wildlife Management and Science Communication.

Areas of Expertise

Anthropogenic Impacts, Behavioral Ecology, Conservation Genetics/Genomics, Population and Community Ecology, Predator-Prey Dynamics, Species Management, T&E Species Management, Wildlife Management

Taxon Groups Studied

Carnivores

Research Publications Publication Date
Waters, S.S., C. Smeeton, K.V. Weagle, and D.E. Ausband. 2007. Re-introducing the swift fox to Blackfeet Tribal Lands, Montana, USA. IUCN Reintroduction News. 26:34-35. May 2007
Stenglein, J.L., M. De Barba, D.E. Ausband, and L.P. Waits. 2010. Impacts of sampling location within a faeces on DNA quality in two carnivore species. Molecular Ecology Resources. 10:109-114. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2009.02670.x December 2009
Stenglein, J.L., L.P. Waits, D.E. Ausband, P. Zager, and C.M. Mack. 2010. Efficient noninvasive genetic sampling for monitoring reintroduced wolves. Journal of Wildlife Management. 74:1050-1058. https://doi.org/10.2193/2009-305 June 2010
Stenglein J.L., L.P. Waits, D.E. Ausband, P. Zager, and C. Mack. 2011. Estimating gray wolf pack size and family relationships using noninvasive genetic sampling at rendezvous sites. Journal of Mammalogy. 92:784-795. DOI: 10.1644/10-MAMM-A-200.1 August 2011
Stansbury, C.R., D.E. Ausband, P. Zager, C.M. Mack, and L.P. Waits. 2016. Identifying gray wolf packs and dispersers using noninvasive genetic samples. Journal of Wildlife Management. 80:1408-1419. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21136 August 2016
Stansbury, C.R., D.E. Ausband, P. Zager, C.M. Mack, C.R. Miller, M.W. Pennell, and L.P. Waits. 2014. A long-term population monitoring approach for a wide-ranging carnivore: noninvasive genetic sampling of gray wolf rendezvous sites in Idaho, USA. Journal of Wildlife Management. 78:1040–1049. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.736 August 2014
Soller, J.M., D.E. Ausband, and M.S. Gunther. 2020. The curse of observer experience: error in noninvasive genetic sampling. PLOS ONE. 15(3): e0229762. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0229762 March 2020
Sells, S.N., M.S. Mitchell, K.M. Podruzny, D.E. Ausband, D.J. Emlen, J.A. Gude, T.D. Smucker, D.K. Boyd, and K.E. Loonam. 2022. Competition, prey, and mortalities influence gray wolf group size. Journal of Wildlife Management. 86: e22193. February 2022
Sells, S.N., M.S. Mitchell, D.E. Ausband, A.D. Luis, D.J. Emlen, K.M Podruzny, and J.A. Gude. 2022. Economical defense of resources structures territorial space use in a cooperative carnivore. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B. 289. | Abstract January 2022
Ruprecht, J.S., D.E. Ausband, M.S. Mitchell, E.O. Garton, and P. Zager. 2012. Homesite attendance based on sex, reproductive status and number of helpers in gray wolf packs. Journal of Mammalogy. 93:1001-1005. DOI: 10.1644/11-MAMM-A-330.1 September 2012
Rich, L.N., R.E. Russell, E.M. Glenn, M.S. Mitchell, J.A. Gude, K.M. Podruzny, C.A. Sime, K. Laudon, D.E. Ausband, and J.D. Nichols. 2013. Estimating occupancy and predicting numbers of gray wolf packs in Montana using hunter surveys. Journal of Wildlife Management. 77:1280-1289.DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.562 July 2013
Mitchell, M.S., J.A. Gude, D.E. Ausband, C.A. Sime, E.E. Bangs, M.D. Jimenez, C.M. Mack, T.J. Meier, S. Nadeau, and D.W. Smith. 2010. Temporal validation of an estimator for successful breeding pairs of wolves Canis lupus in the U.S. northern Rocky Mountains. Wildlife Biology. 16:101-106.https://doi.org/10.2981/08-068 April 2010
Mitchell, M. S., D. E. Ausband, C. A. Sime, E. E. Bangs, M. Jimenez, C. M. Mack, T. J. Meier, M. S. Nadeau, and D. W. Smith. 2008. Estimation of successful breeding pairs for wolves in the U. S. northern Rocky Mountains. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:881-891. May 2008
Loonam, K. L., P. M. Lukacs, D. E. Ausband, M. S. Mitchell, and H. R. Robinson. 2021. Assessing the robustness of a new method for estimating wildlife abundance using remote cameras. Ecological Applications. e02388. 10.1002/eap.2388 August 2021
Loonam, K. E., D. E. Ausband, P. M. Lukacs, M. S. Mitchell, and H. R. Robinson. 2021. Estimating abundance of an unmarked, low-density species using camera traps. Journal of Wildlife Management. 85: 87-96. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21950 March 2021
Krohner, J., and D.E. Ausband. 2019. Associations between sympatric apex predators across a diverse landscape. Mammal Research. 64:203-212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-018-00411-4 April 2019
Jimenez, M.D., E.E. Bangs, D.K. Boyd, D.W. Smith, S.A. Becker, D.E. Ausband, S.P. Woodruff, E.H. Bradley, J. Holyan, and K. Laudon. 2017. Wolf dispersal in the northern Rocky Mountains, Western United States: 1993-2008. Journal of Wildlife Management. DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.21238. March 2017
Jacobs, C., and D.E. Ausband. 2018. Pup-rearing habitat use in a harvested carnivore. Journal of Wildlife Management. 82:802-809. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21434 February 2018
Jacobs, C., and D.E. Ausband. 2018. An evaluation of camera trap performance: What are we missing and does deployment height matter? Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation. 4: 352-360. doi: 10.1002/rse2.81 May 2018
Jacobs, C. and D.E. Ausband. 2019. Wolves in space: locations of individuals and their effect on pup survival in groups of a cooperatively breeding canid. Animal Behaviour. 155:189-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2019.05.028 September 2019
Horne, J., D.E. Ausband, M. Hurley, J. Struthers, J.E. Berg, and K. Groth. 2019. Integrated population model to improve knowledge and management of Idaho wolves. Journal of Wildlife Management. 83:32-42.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21554
January 2019
Gude, J. A., M. S. Mitchell, D. E. Ausband, C. A. Sime, and E. E. Bands. 2009. Internal validation of predicitive logistic regression models for decision making in wildlife management. Wildlife Biology. October 2009
Clendenin, H.R., J. Adams, D.E. Ausband, J.A. Hayden, P. Hohenloe, and L. Waits. 2020. Combining harvest and genetics to estimate reproduction in wolves. Journal of Wildlife Management. 84: 492-504. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21820 January 2020
Brennan, A., P.C. Cross, D.E. Ausband, A. Barbknecht, and S. Creel. 2013. Testing automated howling devices in a wintertime wolf survey. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 37:389-393. DOI: 10.1002/wsb.269 July 2013
Bassing, S.B., D.E. Ausband, M.S. Mitchell, P. Lukacs, A. Keever, G. Hale, and L. Waits. 2019. Stable pack abundance and distribution in a harvested wolf population. Journal of Wildlife Management. 83:577-590. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21616 April 2019
Bassing, S.B., D.E. Ausband, M.S. Mitchell, M. Schwartz, J.J. Nowak, G.C. Hale, and L. Waits. 2020. Immigration does not offset harvest mortality in a cooperatively breeding carnivore. Animal Conservation. 23: 750-761. doi:10.1111/acv.12593 May 2020
Ausband, D.E., and M.S. Mitchell. 2021. The effect of group size on reproduction in cooperatively breeding gray wolves depends on density. Animal Conservation. 24: 994-1000. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12701 May 2021
Ausband, D.E., and L.Waits. 2020. Does harvest affect genetic diversity in gray wolves? Molecular Ecology. 29: 3187-3195. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15552 March 2020
Ausband, D.E., and J. M. Krohner. 2022. Carnivores in color: Pelt color patterns among carnivores in Idaho. Journal of Mammalogy. doi: 10.1093/jmammal/gyab166 March 2022
Ausband, D.E., and G.R. Baty. 2005. Effects of precommercial thinning on snowshoe hare habitat use during winter in low-elevation montane forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35(1): 206-210. https://doi.org/10.1139/x04-152 October 2008
Ausband, D.E., S.B. Bassing, and M.S. Mitchell. 2020. Environmental and social influences on wolf howling behavior. Ethology. 126:890-899. https://doi.org/10.1111/eth.13041 June 2020
Ausband, D.E., S.B. Bassing, M.S. Mitchell, M. Nordhagen, D.W. Smith, and D.R. Stahler. 2016. Dog days of summer: influences on decision of wolves to move pups. Journal of Mammalogy. 97:1282-1287. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyw114 July 2016
Ausband, D.E., P. Lukacs, M. Hurley, S. Roberts, K. Strickfaden, and A. Moeller. 2022. Estimating wolf abundance from cameras. Ecosphere. 13:e3933. | Abstract February 2022
Ausband, D.E., M.S. Mitchell, and L. Waits. 2017. Effects of breeder turnover and harvest on group composition and recruitment in a social carnivore. Journal of Animal Ecology. 86:1094-1011. doi/abs/10.1111/1365-2656.12707 July 2017
Ausband, D.E., M.S. Mitchell, S.B. Bassing, and C. White. 2013. No trespassing: using a biofence to manipulate wolf movements. Wildlife Research. 40:207-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WR12176 May 2013
Ausband, D.E., M.S. Mitchell, S.B. Bassing, A. Morehouse, D.W. Smith, D.R. Stahler, and J.S. Struthers. 2016. Individual, group, and environmental influences on helping behavior in a social carnivore. Ethology. 122:963-972. doi/abs/10.1111/eth.12566 October 2016
Ausband, D.E., M.S. Mitchell, K., Doherty, P. Zager, C.M. Mack, and J. Holyan. 2010. Surveying predicted rendezvous sites to monitor gray wolf populations. Journal of Wildlife Management. 74:1043-1049. https://doi.org/10.2193/2009-303 June 2010
Ausband, D.E., M.S. Mitchell, C. Stansbury, J.L. Stenglein, and L. Waits. 2017. Harvest and group effects on pup survival in a cooperative breeder. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 284. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.0580 May 2017
Ausband, D.E., L.N. Rich, E.M. Glenn, M.S. Mitchell, P. Zager, and C.M. Mack. 2014. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods. Journal of Wildlife Management. 78:335-346. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.654 February 2014
Ausband, D.E., J.Skrivseth, and M.S. Mitchell. 2011. An automated device for provoking and capturing wildlife calls. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 35:498-503. DOI: 10.1002/wsb.80 December 2011
Ausband, D.E., J. Young, B. Fannin, M.S. Mitchell, J.L. Stenglein, L.P. Waits, and J.A. Shivik. 2011. Hair of the dog: obtaining samples from coyotes and wolves noninvasively. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 35:105-111. https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.23 July 2011
Ausband, D.E., J. Holyan, and C. Mack. 2009. Longevity and adaptability of a reintroduced gray wolf. Northwestern Naturalist. 90:44-47. April 2009
Ausband, D.E., C. Stansbury, J.L. Stenglein, J.L. Struthers, and L.P. Waits. 2015. Recruitment in a social carnivore before and after harvest. Animal Conservation 18:415-423. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12187 January 2015
Ausband, D.E. and K.F. Foresman. 2007. Swift fox reintroductions on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana. USA. Biological Conservation. 136:423-430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.12.007 March 2007
Ausband, D.E. and K.F. Foresman. 2007. Dispersal, survival, and reproduction of wild-born, yearling swift foxes in a reintroduced population. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 85:185-189. https://doi.org/10.1139/z06-208 February 2007
Ausband, D.E. and E.A. Ausband. 2006. Observations of interactions between swift fox and badgers. The Prairie Naturalist. 38(1):63-64. January 2007
Ausband, D.E. 2022. Offspring sex ratios are male-biased reflecting sex-biased dispersal in Idaho, USA, wolves. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 76: doi.org/10.1007/s00265-022-03243 | Abstract September 2022
Ausband, D.E. 2022. Inherit the kingdom or storm the castle? Breeding strategies in gray wolves. Ethology. 128:152-158. | Abstract January 2022
Ausband, D.E. 2022. Genetic diversity and mate selection in a reintroduced population of gray wolves. Scientific Reports. 12:535. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-04449-4 | Abstract January 2022
Ausband, D.E. 2021. Wolf use of humanmade objects during pup-rearing. Animal Behavior and Cognition. 8: 405-414. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26451/abc.08.03.06.2021 | Abstract August 2021
Ausband, D.E. 2019. Pair bonds, reproductive success, and rise of alternate mating strategies in a social carnivore. Behavioral Ecology. 30:1618-1623. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arz126 August 2019
Ausband, D.E. 2018. Multiple breeding individuals within groups in a social carnivore. Journal of Mammalogy. 99:836-834. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyy051 May 2018
Ausband, D.E. 2016. Gray wolf harvest in Idaho. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 40:500-505. https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.670 August 2016
Ausband, D., and A. Moehrenschlager. 2009. Long-range juvenile dispersal and its implication for conservation of reintroduced swift fox Vulpes velox populations in the USA and Canada. Oryx. 43(1):73-77. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605308001622 January 2009
Cerreta, Ariana
PhD
acerreta@uidaho.edu

Winkel, Brianna
PhD
bwinkel@uidaho.edu

Presentations Presentation Date
Strickfaden, K., A.M. Marshall, D.E. Ausband, and T.E. Link. 2021. The virtual measuring stake: an R package allowing for snow depth measurements at remote camera stations. Poster. Science of the Service 2021 for US Fish and Wildlife Service Columbia Pacific Northwest and Pacific Islands Region Conference, Virtual Meeting. May 2021
Strickfaden, K., A.M. Marshall, D.E. Ausband, and T.E. Link. 2021. The virtual measuring stake: an R package allowing for snow depth measurements at remote camera stations. Idaho Chapter of the Wildlife Society Annual Conference, Virtual Meeting. December 2020
Strickfaden, K., A.M. Marshall, D.E. Ausband, T.E. Link. 2022. Identifying snow refugia in complex forested terrain using remote camera data. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service State of the Science Conference. Virtual Meeting. April 2022
Strickfaden, K., A.M. Marshall, D.E. Ausband, T.E. Link. 2022. Identifying snow refugia in complex forested terrain using remote camera data. The Idaho Chapter of the Wildlife Society Annual Meeting. Boise, ID. February 2022
Strickfaden, K. M., D. Ausband, T. Link. 2020. Novel methods for deriving snow data from remote cameras and applications to ungulate ecology and wildlife habitat management. University of Idaho Project Stakeholder Meeting. 15 June 2020.<br><br> June 2020
Stenglein,J., C. Mack, D. Ausband, M. Mitchell, P. Zager, S. Nadeau and L. Waits. 2009. Evaluating the potential of noninvasive genetic sampling for long-term monitoring of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Idaho. Annual Meeting, The Wildlife Society. January 2009
Stenglein, J., C. Mack, D. Ausband, M. Mitchell, P. Zager, S. Nadeau, and L. Waits. 2009. Monitoring an Idaho gray wolf population: A noninvasive genetic approach. Annual Meeting, Idaho Chapter, The Wildlife Society. January 2017
Sells, S., M.S. Mitchell, and D.E. Ausband. 2020. Mechanisms influencing pack size in gray wolves. Montana Chapter of the Wildlife Society Annual Conference. March 2020
Rebholz, P., D.E. Ausband. 2022. Combining tissue samples and genetics to estimate the number of breeder wolves harvested in Idaho. The Idaho Chapter of the Wildlife Society Annual Meeting. Boise, ID. February 2022
Nelson, J.M., D.E. Ausband. 2022. Estimating black bear population size in Idaho. The Idaho Chapter of the Wildlife Society Annual Meeting. Boise, ID. February 2022
Nelson, J.M., & D.E. Ausband. 2020. Black bear monitoring in Idaho. St Joe Sportsman's Breakfast, Coeur d' Alene, Idaho. February 2020
Nelson, J.M., & D.E. Ausband. 2019. Black bear monitoring in Idaho. Student Chapter of The Wildlife Society, Moscow, Idaho. December 2019
Lukacs, P., A. Moeller, D. Ausband, K. Loonam, H. Robinson, M. Hurley, and C. Chitwood. 2021. Abundance from camera data, pipe dream to mainstream. College of Forestry Seminar Series, Missoula, MT. October 2021
Loonam, K., H. Robinson, D.E. Ausband. 2019. Time to event density estimation of low density species with remote cameras. Idaho TWS conference. March 2019
Loonam, K., D. Ausband, P. Lukacs, M. Mitchell, and H. Robinson. 2019 Wildlife Society Conference. Counting Cougars: Density Estimates of Unmarked, Low Density Populations with Camera Traps. Reno, NV. September 2019
Loonam, K. H. Robinson, D.E. Ausband. 2019. Time to event density estimation of low density species with remote cameras. Montana TWS conference. February 2019
Link, T., K. Strickfaden, D.E. Ausband, and A. Marshall. Locating snow refugia in complex terrain: Leveraging automated image data to adapt wildlife and habitat management practices. North American Congress for Conservation Biology. June 2020
Clendenin, H.C., J. Adams, D. Ausband, P. Hohenlohe, and L. Waits. 2019. Comparing SNPs and Microsatellites for Gray Wolf Sibship Reconstruction. Idaho TWS conference March 2019
Ausband, D.E. Monogamy; It’s Complicated. Breeding Strategies in Gray Wolves. The Wildlife Society Annual Conference, Reno NV. 2019. September 2019
Ausband, D.E. 2022. The effect of group size on reproduction in gray wolves depends on density. The Idaho Chapter of the Wildlife Society Annual Meeting. Boise, ID. February 2022
Ausband, D.E. 2022. Fifteen years of wolf hunting and trapping in Idaho. What do we know? International Wolf Conference, Minneapolis, MN. October 2022
Ausband, D.E. 2020. Monogamy; It's Complicated. Breeding strategies in gray wolves. Annual Meeting of the Idaho Chapter of the Wildlife Society , Moscow, Idaho. March 2020
Ausband, D.E. 2018. Ten years after wolf harvest: What do we know? Idaho Chapter of the Wildlife Society March 2018
Ausband, D.E. 2017. What we thought we knew about wolf harvest was wrong. IDFG In-Service Training School May 2017
Ausband, D.E. 2017. Harvest and group effects on pup survival in gray wolves. Wildlife Society Annual Conference. September 2017
Ausband, D.E. 2017 Idaho Chapter of the Wildlife Society. "Gray wolf harvest in Idaho" March 2017
Ausband, D.E. 2016. Idaho Chapter of the Wildlife Society. "Effects of harvest on recruitment and wolf pack structure" March 2016
Ausband, D.E. 2016 Ecology Series Seminar, Humboldt State University. "Carnivore conservation in a complex world: from the Tribes to Feds to States". Invited speaker September 2016
Ausband, D.E. 2015. Montana Chapter of the Wildlife Society. “Survival and recruitment of gray wolf pups before and after harvest” February 2015
Ausband, D.E. 2015. Idaho Chapter of the Wildlife Society. “Survival and recruitment of gray wolf pups before and after harvest” March 2015
Ausband, D.E. 2014. North American Congress for Conservation Biology. "Carnivore conservation and Native American Tribes: tools for now". July 2014
Ausband, D.E. 2014. American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Northern Rocky Mountain Branch Science Group. “What we know – and don’t know – about the wolves in your backyard” Invited speaker June 2014
Ausband, D.E. 2013. Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society. “Home alone: influence of individual, pack, and environmental variation on pup attendance behavior in gray wolves” February 2013
Ausband, D.E. 2013. Idaho Chapter of The Wildlife Society . “Home alone: influence of individual, pack, and environmental variation on pup attendance behavior in gray wolves” March 2013
Ausband, D.E. 2012. University of Montana Research Spotlight. “Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf when you can howl back?” Invited speaker and panelist January 2012
Ausband, D.E. 2011. Oregon Chapter of the Wildlife Society “How to trick a wolf: manipulating pack movements with biofencing” April 2011
Ausband, D.E. 2011. Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society. “How to trick a wolf: manipulating pack movements with biofencing” February 2011
Ausband, D.E. 2011. Idaho Chapter of The Wildlife Society. “Developing gray wolf population monitoring techniques” March 2011
Ausband, D.E. 2011. Animal Grantmakers Conference. How to trick a wolf: using a biofence to manipulate wolf movements” Invited speaker and panelist March 2011
Ausband, D.E. 2010. Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society “Reintroducing swift foxes to the Blackfeet Reservation” February 2010
Ausband, D.E. 2009. Wildlife Society Annual Conference. “Developing gray wolf population monitoring techniques” September 2009
Ausband, D.E. 2009. North American Carnivores Conference. “Developing gray wolf population monitoring techniques” October 2009
Ausband, D.E. 2008. North American Wolf Conference. “Developing wolf population monitoring methods: a research update” April 2008
Ausband, D.E. 2008. Idaho Chapter of The Wildlife Society. “Developing wolf population monitoring methods: a research update” March 2008
Ausband, D.E. 2007. Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society. ”Developing a framework for monitoring wolves in Idaho” February 2007
Ausband, D.E. 2007. Idaho Chapter of The Wildlife Society. ”Developing a framework for monitoring wolves in Idaho” March 2007
Ausband, D.E. 2006. Swift Fox Conservation Team Meeting. “Assessing the success of swift fox reintroductions on the Blackfeet Reservation” April 2006
Ausband, D.E. 2005. Swift Fox Conservation Team Meeting. “Assessing the success of swift fox reintroductions on the Blackfeet Reservation” April 2005
Ausband, D.E. 2005. Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society . “Assessing the success of swift fox reintroductions on the Blackfeet Reservation” February 2005
Ausband, D.E. 2004. Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society. “Snowshoe hare habitat use after forest thinning in northwest Montana” February 2004
Ausband, D.E. 2003. University of Montana Undergraduate Research Conference. “Snowshoe hare habitat use after forest thinning in northwest Montana” May 2003