Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program: Oklahoma
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Leslie, D. M., Jr., and K. Sharma 2009. Tetracerus quadricornis (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Mammalian Species 843:1-11.


Tetracerus quadricornis (de Blainville, 1816) is 1 of the smallest Asian bovids and commonly called the four-horned antelope or chousingha. It is endemic to Peninsular India and small parts of lowland Nepal. T. quadricornis is a sexually dimorphic boselaphid of small stature; only males have horns with 2 of the 3 recognized subspecies having 2 anterior and 2 posterior smooth sharp horns, unique among wild horned mammals. Tetracerus is monotypic. It prefers dry deciduous forested habitat and hilly terrain and is secretive and little studied. This diminutive species is considered Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, and it is very uncommon in captivity.