Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program: Oklahoma
Education, Research and Technical Assistance for Managing Our Natural Resources

Oklahoma Project

Assessment of co-occurrence modeling when closure is not met

January 2021 - June 2022


Participating Agencies

  • NA

Species interactions and patterns of co-occurrence are commonly assessed with two-species occupancy models. Occupancy models assume that the occupancy state is closed to changes within a sampling season. When evaluating multiple species simultaneously to assess patterns of co-occurrence, the assumption of closure is likely violated due to variation in life history characteristics (e.g., movement capacity, home range size, social behaviors). This study is employing a simulation-based approach to evaluate the influence of violating the closure assumption on inferences from two-species occupancy models. The results of this study will help improve our understanding of occupancy modeling methods and provide insights on how best to interpret two-species occupancy modeling results when one or both species violate the closure assumption.

Research Publications Publication Date
Lonsinger, R. C. 2022. Co-occurrence models fail to infer underlying patterns of avoidance and aggregation when closure is violated. Ecology and Evolution 7: e9104. | Abstract June 2022