Brown, P. J., J. L. Ard, and A. V. Zale. 2012. Transverse mixing of simulated piscicides in small montane streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141:353-356.
Thorough mixing of piscicides into receiving waters is important for efficient and effective fish eradication. However, no guidance exists for the placement of drip stations with respect to mixing. Salt (NaCl) was used as a tracer to measure the mixing rates of center versus edge applications in riffle/pool, straight, and meandering sections of montane streams. The tracer was applied at either the center or the edge of a channel and measured with a conductivity meter across a downstream grid to determine the distances at which transverse mixing was complete. No advantage was accrued by applying piscicides in different types of channels as transverse mixing distance did not differ among them. However, mixing distance was significantly shorter at center applications. Chemicals entering a stream at the center of a stream channel mix thoroughly within 10 stream widths, and within 20 stream widths when chemicals enter a stream channel at the edge.