Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program: Pennsylvania
Education, Research and Technical Assistance for Managing Our Natural Resources

Walter, W.D. and J.W. Fischer. Manual of Applied Spatial Ecology. Online:


Advances in data handling and manipulation, GIS capabilities, and methods of estimators for home range, movements, resource selection, and spatial epidemiology have occurred within the R environment. Considering that R is free to users, R also provides a platform to create and display spatial layers without the need for the variety of GUI software, free or otherwise. Furthermore, analyzing spatial data in R enables statistical analysis of data without the errors that may arise from bringing data from spreadsheet or GIS software to statistical programs. An online manual could be easily followed by researchers, biologists, or graduate students to analyze their data in R. We provide numerous citations throughout each section should the user choose to learn the theory