Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program: Missouri
Education, Research and Technical Assistance for Managing Our Natural Resources

Schultz, J.H., S.A. Wilhelm Stanis, C.J. Lie, M. Morgan and E.B. Webb. Exploring factors affecting staff support of a voluntary, nonlead ammunition outreach program. Applied Environmental Education and Communication


Exposure to spent lead ammunition is a serious issue for bald eagles in the Upper Midwestern U.S. An outreach program was initiated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address this concern by encouraging deer hunters to voluntarily use nonlead ammunition. This paper analyzes some factors influencing program support among USFWS staff in 2017 and 2018, including the use of nonlead ammunition and lead poisoning in wildlife. Results from pooled multiple imputation showed attitudes toward eagles’ lead risk and importance of informational materials had the strongest effect on program support, followed by an individual’s innovation score. Although previous studies have focused on influencing hunter behavior, our research explored attributes among staff and their support for the outreach program. To enhance program support, different types of staff training might be necessary, depending on perceived eagles’ lead risk, importance of informational materials, and individuals’ innovativeness. Implications of these findings are discussed.