Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Sandbar Willow / Rush speices - Common Boneset Wet Meadow & Shrubland Division
Colloquial Name: Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Hierarchy Level: Division
Type Concept: This division consists of vegetation in eastern cool-temperate North America, including the Great Plains, and excluding the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains. It is dominated by shrubs and/or non-hydromorphic herbaceous plants that are facultatively to obligately adapted to freshwater wetland conditions and that grow in mineral or mucky organic soils with regular (intermittent to permanent) saturated conditions. In general, this comprises vegetation of most of the cool-temperate freshwater wetlands of eastern North America, excluding bogs, poor fens, and tidal marshes. Genera that are fairly diagnostic of this division include Acorus, Alisma, Beckmannia, Boehmeria, Calla, Callitriche, Caltha, Cephalanthus, Chelone, Chrysosplenium, Cicuta, Cladium, Cyperus, Dulichium, Echinochloa, Eleocharis, Epilobium (in the strict sense), Eriocaulon, Eupatorium, Fimbristylis, Fuirena, Gentiana, Gratiola, Glyceria, Hydrocotyle, Juncus, Justicia, Lindernia, Ludwigia, Lycopus, Mentha, Mikania, Mimulus, Nasturtium, Onoclea, Osmunda, Oxypolis, Parnassia, Peltandra, Phalaris, Pilea, Platanthera (in the strict sense), Pontederia, Ptilimnium, Rorippa, Sagittaria, Saururus, Schoenoplectus, Scirpus, Scolochloa, Sium, Sparganium, Symplocarpus, Typha, Utricularia, Veratrum, Woodwardia, Xyris, and Zizania. Many individual species of Carex also are diagnostic, and strong dominance by one or more species of this genus usually indicates vegetation of this division. The division includes vegetation that occurs in shrub swamps, seepages, wet meadows, marshes, alluvial banks and bars, pond- and lakeshores, and playas. The hydrologic regime ranges from intermittently flooded, temporarily flooded, seasonally flooded, saturated, semipermanently flooded, intermittently exposed, and permanently flooded.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Stands of this division have a shrub or herbaceous physiognomy and a composition with a predominance of facultative to obligate wetland plant species (Lichvar et al. 2014) that occur on a substrate that is regularly flooded or saturated by freshwater in eastern temperate and boreal North America east of the Rocky Mountains and Chihuahuan Desert, and north of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains.
Within its range, vegetation of this division (D323) is approximately equivalent to the concept of hydrophytic vegetation, as determined by a prevalence index score of 3.0 or less (Wentworth et al. 1988, USACE 2010a, 2010b, 2012a, 2012b) and by wetland plant ratings of Lichvar et al. (2014). This vegetation greatly overlaps, but is not equivalent to, the concept of hydrophytic vegetation, as determined by the dominance (50/20) test of USACE (1987, 2010a, 2010b, 2012a, 2012b). Hydrophytic vegetation, as determined by the dominance test, includes some upland vegetation that is dominated by facultative hydrophytes (e.g., Abies balsamea, Acer rubrum). Hydric soil and wetland hydrology indicators (USACE 1987, 2010a, 2010b, 2012a, 2012b) are usually, but not always present in stands that can be attributed to this division.
Genera that are fairly diagnostic of this division (D323), except where it abuts the range of 2.C.4.Ne ~Atlantic & Gulf Coast Freshwater Wet Prairie, Marsh & Shrubland Division (D322)$$ include Acorus, Alisma, Beckmannia, Boehmeria, Calla, Callitriche, Caltha, Cephalanthus, Chelone, Chrysosplenium, Cicuta, Cladium, Cyperus, Dulichium, Echinochloa, Eleocharis, Epilobium (in the strict sense), Eriocaulon, Eupatorium, Fimbristylis, Fuirena, Gentiana, Gratiola, Glyceria, Hydrocotyle, Juncus, Justicia, Lindernia, Ludwigia, Lycopus, Mentha, Mikania, Mimulus, Nasturtium, Onoclea, Osmunda, Osmundastrum, Oxypolis, Parnassia, Peltandra, Phalaris, Pilea, Platanthera (in the strict sense), Pontederia, Ptilimnium, Rorippa, Sagittaria, Saururus, Schoenoplectus, Scirpus, Scolochloa, Sium, Sparganium, Symplocarpus, Typha, Utricularia, Veratrum, Woodwardia, Xyris, and Zizania. Many individual species of Carex also are diagnostic, and strong dominance by one or more species of this genus usually indicates vegetation of this division.
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: The eastern boreal group was added to this type after the main description was written, and are not reflected in the description. The distinction between this division (D323) and 2.C.4.Ne Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland Division (D322) probably warrants additional review clarification. Presently, the latter includes some freshwater wetland vegetation of cool-temperate climates on the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (i.e., Northern & Mid-Atlantic Coastal Wetland Group (G752) which occurs from Virginia to the Maritime Provinces) that may be more related to vegetation of this cool-temperate division than to warm-temperate vegetation on the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains. A cool-temperate versus warm-temperate (latitude) distinction between the divisions should be examined as an alternative that may provide more diagnostic consistency than the geomorphic (Coastal Plain or not) distinction.
Similar NVC Types:
D029 North American Bog & Fen, note: "Stands of D323 may intergrade with those of D029 in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. The former usually occur on mineral soils or mucky Histosols, whereas the latter are usually on peaty Histosols. In this area, D029 is characterized by the predominance of peatland-favoring vascular species such as Andromeda polifolia, Carex exilis, Carex lasiocarpa, Carex livida, Carex magellanica ssp. irrigua, Carex michauxiana, Carex oligosperma, Carex sterilis, Chamaedaphne calyculata, Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Drosera spp., Eriophorum spp., Kalmia angustifolia, Kalmia polifolia, Ledum groenlandicum, Rhynchospora alba, Sarracenia purpurea, Trichophorum alpinum, and/or Vaccinium oxycoccos, and of bryophytes such as Aulacomnium palustre, Campylium stellatum, Scorpidium scorpioides, Sphagnum capillifolium, Sphagnum centrale, Sphagnum contortum, Sphagnum cuspidatum, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum papillosum, Sphagnum rubellum, Sphagnum teres, Sphagnum warnstorfii, and/or Tomentypnum nitens."
D024 Eastern North American Grassland & Shrubland, note: "Stands of D323 may intergrade with [upland] stands of D024. In many cases, the hydrophytic vegetation criterion of a prevalence index score of 3.0 or less (Wentworth et al. 1988, USACE 2010a, 2010b, 2012a, 2012b) often is a reasonably accurate diagnostic feature for distinguishing vegetation of the former from that of the upland division."
D031 Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland, note: "The range of D323 abuts that of D031 where the eastern foot of the Rocky Mountains meets the western edge of the Great Plains in Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico. Generally, the predominance of Great Plains species (e.g., Artemisia cana ssp. cana, Carex emoryi, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Panicum virgatum, Pascopyrum smithii, Salix interior (in the strict sense), Schoenoplectus pungens, Shepherdia argentea, Spartina pectinata) will indicate the former, while the predominance of montane species (e.g., Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia, Betula occidentalis, Salix geyeriana, Salix irrorata, Salix monticola) will indicate the latter."
D033 North American Great Plains Saline Marsh, note: "Stands of D323 may intergrade with those of D033 in the Great Plains where saline playas, flats or marshes occur, and stands attributable to the different divisions may share species (e.g., Hordeum jubatum, Pascopyrum smithii, Schoenoplectus pungens). D033 is characterized by the importance of high salinity or alkalinity -species (e.g., Atriplex patula, Distichlis spicata, Muhlenbergia asperifolia, Poa arida, Puccinellia nuttalliana, Salicornia rubra, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, Schoenoplectus americanus, Bolboschoenus maritimus, Sporobolus airoides, Suaeda calceoliformis)."
D023 Central North American Grassland & Shrubland, note: "Stands of D323 may intergrade with [upland] stands of D024. In many cases, the hydrophytic vegetation criterion of a prevalence index score of 3.0 or less (Wentworth et al. 1988, USACE 2010a, 2010b, 2012a, 2012b) often is a reasonably accurate diagnostic feature for distinguishing vegetation of the former from the upland division."
D032 Southwestern North American Warm Desert Freshwater Marsh & Bosque, note: "The range of D323 abuts that of D032 in Texas and New Mexico where the southwestern Great Plains or the Edwards Plateau meet the Chihuahuan Desert region. Generally the predominance of [cold-tolerant] Great Plains species (e.g., Carex emoryi, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Panicum virgatum, Spartina pectinata) and eastern temperate region species (e.g., Justicia americana) will indicate the former, while the predominance of less cold-tolerant] desert species (e.g., Arundo donax, Baccharis salicifolia, Muhlenbergia rigens, Prosopis spp., Pluchea sericea, Tamarix spp.) will indicate the latter."
D320 Arctic Freshwater Marsh & Wet Meadow, note: "The range of D323 extends to that of D320 in the boreal region of Canada (outside the scope of the USNVC). The two divisions share a number of dominant species (e.g., Calamagrostis canadensis, Carex aquatilis, Carex utriculata), and the floristic distinctions between the divisions within the boreal region are not clear."
D322 Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland, note: "The range of D323 abuts that D322 in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains from the Maritime Provinces to Texas. Generally, species that are restricted to the coastal plains (e.g., Amaranthus cannabinus, Carex hyalinolepis, Cladium mariscus ssp. jamaicense, Eleocharis equisetoides, Ilex glabra, Leersia hexandra, Morella cerifera, Nelumbo lutea, Panicum hemitomon, Panicum tenerum, Proserpinaca pectinata, Spartina cynosuroides, Vaccinium formosum, Vaccinium fuscatum, Zizaniopsis miliacea) will indicate stands of D322. Genera such as Andropogon, Eriocaulon, Fimbristylis, Fuirena, Paspalum, Rhynchospora, Sarracenia, and Xyris have greater prominence and a higher diversity of species in D322, in the southern part of the ranges of the two divisions. The floristic distinctions between the divisions in the northern part of their ranges, where there are fewer characteristically warm-temperate taxa, is not as clear."
Physiognomy and Structure: This vegetation typically is dominated by some combination of shrubs and/or herbs, sometimes with scattered trees. Trees from adjacent upland stands may overhang small stands and provide shade. Occasionally, bryophytes (e.g., Sphagnum spp.) may be important. Where present, a shrub layer may be either tall (e.g., up to 8 m) or short (<2 m). Herbaceous layers often are dominated by graminoids (grasses sedges, rushes, cattails, and others) that are short to tall (e.g., up to 5 m) but can also be forb-dominated, especially in shadier settings. Vegetation density is usually moderately high to high, but some stands, especially those that experience prolonged inundation, along with substrate disturbance (e.g., on alluvial bars or lakeshores) can be quite sparse (e.g., <1% cover). In larger wetland complexes with gradual (gently sloping) transitions to upland along their boundaries, several different vegetation types, aligned along the hydroperiod gradient, may occur within close proximity (e.g., marsh to wet meadow to shrub swamp).
Floristics: The floristic composition of vegetation of this division is exceedingly diverse. The following description accounts for the most frequent and widespread taxa. For taxa named at the species level, the predominant wetland regions (as defined by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (2010a, 2010b, 2012a, 2012b) (Lichvar et al. 2014)) in which they occur are listed in parentheses. These regions are: (1) Northcentral and Northeast (NCNE), (2) Eastern Mountains and Piedmont (EMP), (3) Midwest (MW), and (4) Great Plains (GP). In turn, these regions approximately correspond to the following floristic areas of McLaughlin (2007), as they occur within the range of this USNVC division: (1) the Canadian Province, (2) the Appalachian and Austroriparian (in part) subprovinces of the Carolina Province, (3) the Illinoian subprovince of the Carolina Province, and (4) the Saskatchewan, Kansan, and Comanchian subprovinces of the Great Plains Province (GP). The Great Plains area is the region that is most divergent in floristic composition from the rest of the division. Eastern boreal stands were added to this type after the main description was written, and are not reflected in the list below.
Frequent shrub species include Acer rubrum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (NCNE), Alnus serrulata (NCNE, EMP), Amelanchier canadensis (NCNE, EMP), Amorpha fruticosa (EMP, MW, GP), Artemisia cana ssp. cana (GP), Betula nigra (EMP, MW), Cephalanthus occidentalis (NCNE, EMP, MW), Clethra alnifolia (NCNE, EMP), Cornus sericea (= Cornus alba) (NCNE, GP), Cornus amomum (EMP, MW), Cornus racemosa (NCNE, EMP, MW), Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda (NCNE), Hypericum densiflorum (EMP), Hypericum prolificum (EMP, MW), Ilex verticillata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Lindera benzoin (NCNE, EMP, MW), Lonicera villosa (NCNE), Lyonia ligustrina (NCNE, EMP), Myrica gale (NCNE), Physocarpus opulifolius (NCNE, EMP, MW), Rhododendron arborescens (EMP), Rhododendron viscosum (NCNE, EMP), Ribes spp. (NCNE), Rosa palustris (NCNE, EMP, MW), Salix spp., Salix discolor, Salix interior, Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis, Sanguisorba canadensis (NCNE), Spiraea alba var. latifolia (NCNE, EMP), Spiraea tomentosa (NCNE, EMP, MW), Toxicodendron vernix (NCNE, EMP, MW), Vaccinium corymbosum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Viburnum dentatum (EMP, MW), Viburnum nudum (NCNE, EMP), and Viburnum opulus var. americanum (NCNE, MW). Non-native shrubs include Elaeagnus angustifolia (GP), Frangula alnus (NCNE, MW), Ligustrum sinense (EMP), Lonicera spp. (NCNE, EMP, MW), and Rhamnus cathartica (NCNE, MW, GP).
Many stands are dominated by or have an important component of graminoids; among the more prominent genera are Acorus (NCNE, MW, GP), Carex spp., Cyperus spp. , Eleocharis spp., Glyceria spp., Juncus spp., Schoenoplectus spp., Scirpus (all), Sparganium spp., Typha spp., and Zizania (NCNE, MW). Other herbaceous genera that are frequent include Alisma spp., Bidens spp., Callitriche spp., Epilobium spp., Equisetum spp., Eupatorium spp., Eutrochium (= Eupatoriadelphus) spp., Fimbristylis (NCNE, EMP, MW), Gentiana spp., Gratiola spp., Helenium spp., Hydrocotyle (NCNE, EMP, MW), Lobelia spp., Lycopus spp., Mentha spp., Mimulus spp., Osmunda (NCNE, EMP, MW), Parnassia (NCNE, EMP, MW), Phyla (EMP, MW, GP), Platanthera (NCNE, EMP, MW), Polygonum section Persicaria (= Persicaria) spp., Ranunculus spp., Rhexia (NCNE, EMP), Rorippa spp., Sagittaria spp., Utricularia spp., and Woodwardia (NCNE, EMP, MW).
Additional herbaceous species that are frequent across large areas of the range of the division include Alopecurus aequalis (NCNE, GP), Andropogon glomeratus (EMP), Argentina anserina (= Potentilla anserina) (NCNE, MW, GP), Asclepias incarnata, Beckmannia syzigachne (GP), Boehmeria cylindrica (NCNE, EMP, MW), Calamagrostis canadensis (NCNE, MW), Calamagrostis coarctata (EMP), Calamagrostis stricta (GP), Calla palustris (NCNE), Caltha palustris (NCNE, MW), Campanula aparinoides (NCNE, EMP, MW), Cardamine bulbosa (EMP, MW), Cardamine pensylvanica (NCNE, EMP, MW), Chelone glabra (NCNE, EMP, MW), Chrysosplenium americanum (NCNE, EMP), Cicuta maculata, Cirsium muticum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Cladium mariscoides (NCNE), Clematis ligusticifolia (GP), Clematis virginiana (NCNE, EMP, MW), Commelina virginica (EMP), Deschampsia cespitosa (NCNE), Dichanthelium clandestinum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Diodia virginiana (EMP), Doellingeria umbellata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Dryopteris cristata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Dulichium arundinaceum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Echinochloa muricata, Eragrostis frankii (EMP, MW), Eragrostis hypnoides (EMP, MW, GP), Eriocaulon aquaticum (NCNE), Euthamia graminifolia, Fuirena simplex (GP), Galium asprellum (NCNE, MW), Galium tinctorium (NCNE, EMP, MW), Geum rivale (NCNE), Heracleum maximum (NCNE, MW), Hordeum jubatum (NCNE, MW, GP), Hypericum mutilum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Impatiens capensis (NCNE, EMP, MW), Iris versicolor (NCNE), Iris virginica (EMP, MW), Iva annua (EMP, MW, GP), Justicia americana (EMP, MW), Leersia oryzoides, Leptochloa fusca ssp. fascicularis (= Leptochloa fascicularis, = Diplachne fusca) (MW, GP), Lindernia dubia, Ludwigia alternifolia (EMP, MW), Ludwigia palustris (NCNE, EMP, MW), Lysimachia ciliata, Lysimachia terrestris (NCNE, EMP, MW), Menyanthes trifoliata (NCNE), Mikania scandens (EMP), Onoclea sensibilis (NCNE, EMP, MW), Osmunda cinnamomea (= Osmundastrum cinnamomeum) (NCNE, EMP, MW), Oxypolis rigidior (EMP, MW), Packera aurea (NCNE, EMP, MW), Panicum dichotomiflorum, Panicum rigidulum (EMP, MW), Panicum verrucosum (EMP), Panicum virgatum, Pascopyrum smithii (GP), Peltandra virginica (NCNE, EMP, MW), Phalaris arundinacea, Phlox maculata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Pilea pumila (NCNE, EMP, MW), Poa palustris (NCNE, MW, GP), Pontederia cordata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Ptilimnium capillaceum (EMP), Rhynchospora capitellata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Rubus pubescens (NCNE), Rudbeckia laciniata, Rumex aquaticus var. fenestratus (= Rumex occidentalis) (GP), Rumex verticillatus (NCNE, EMP, MW), Saururus cernuus (EMP, MW), Scolochloa festucacea (GP), Scutellaria lateriflora, Senecio congestus (= Tephroseris palustris) (GP), Sisyrinchium angustifolium (NCNE, EMP, MW), Sium suave, Solidago gigantea, Solidago patula (NCNE, EMP, MW), Solidago uliginosa (NCNE), Spartina pectinata (NCNE, MW, GP), Sphenopholis obtusata (EMP, MW, GP), Stachys pilosa (NCNE, MW, GP), Symplocarpus foetidus (NCNE, EMP, MW), Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Symphyotrichum puniceum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Teucrium canadense, Thalictrum pubescens (NCNE, EMP), Thelypteris noveboracensis (= Parathelypteris noveboracensis) (NCNE, EMP, MW), Thelypteris palustris (NCNE, EMP, MW), Veratrum viride (NCNE, EMP), Vernonia noveboracensis (NCNE, EMP), Veronica scutellata (NCNE), Viola cucullata (NCNE, EMP, MW), and Viola macloskeyi ssp. pallens (= Viola pallens) (NCNE, EMP). Introduced species include Agrostis gigantea (NCNE, EMP, MW), Agrostis stolonifera, Arundo donax (EMP), Iris pseudacorus (EMP, MW), Lythrum salicaria (NCNE, EMP, MW), Lysimachia nummularia (NCNE, EMP, MW), Microstegium vimineum (EMP, MW), Phragmites australis ssp. americanus, Poa trivialis (NCNE, EMP), Polygonum cuspidatum (= Fallopia japonica, = Reynoutria japonica) (NCNE, EMP, MW), Nasturtium officinale, Veronica anagallis-aquatica, and Xyris montana (NCNE).
Dynamics: The frequency and duration of saturation (hydroperiod) differentiate this vegetation from that of uplands and also plays a major factor in the determination of both floristic composition and vegetation physiognomy and structure. Increasing soil saturation leads to increasing anoxic stress, which is a significant local process that determines the composition of this vegetation. Longer periods of saturation or flooding favor taxa that are more tolerant of anoxic conditions and, in general, favors the persistence of a physiognomy dominated by herbaceous plants over one dominated by woody plants, and the persistence of shrubs over that of trees. Prolonged drought periods may reverse the vegetation trends that long hydroperiods favor. Erosion of existing substrate and deposition of new substrate is an important factor in some units of this division, particularly those associated with alluvial bars and lake shorelines with periodic disturbances from waves associated with storm surges. Human-induced changes in vegetation composition and structure can occur from lowering of water tables due to surface and groundwater withdrawal and to stream incision following excessive surface water runoff from land cover modifications. Invasive non-native species, which are especially prolific in alluvial settings with substrate turnover and upstream dams along riparian areas, can alter inundation and substrate turnover patterns in alluvial wetlands. For some types in the division, occasional natural fires may work in concert with anoxic stress to prevent establishment of trees.
Environmental Description: Settings most often are flat, depressed, or gently sloping terrain, where surface water collects, groundwater emerges, and/or to which surface water from large waterbodies (lakes, ponds streams, rivers) rises. Settings include marshes, wet meadows, shrub swamps, depressional swamps, seepages, alluvial bars, riverbanks, pondshores, lakeshores, and others. A key environmental factor is periodic (intermittent to permanent) soil saturation and flooding and anoxic stress on vegetation. Stands tend to be larger and more frequent in glaciated regions and near the Coastal Plain, where geomorphic processes have favored the development of gentle slopes (including basins) on which the rate of undrained surface water accumulation tends to be greater than in regions of higher topographic relief.
Climate: This vegetation is largely azonal in respect to climate, extending essentially throughout the full temperature range of cool-temperate and eastern boreal climates in eastern North America, from subtropical to boreal. Average annual temperature ranges from a high of about 19°C (66°F) (Columbus, GA) to around a low of 4°C (39°F) (Duluth, MN). Precipitation ranges from 100 to 160 cm (39-63 inches) per year in the eastern part of the range to about 5 to 6 cm (13-15 inches) per year at the western edge of the Great Plains. All other factors being equal, development of this vegetation is favored in climates with higher precipitation and cooler temperatures. The latter condition results in lower evapotranspiration rates of water (which allows more precipitation to become surface water). It also results in shorter periods of soil microbial activity that would otherwise reduce the amount of soil fine organic matter, the capacity of which to hold water exceeds that of most mineral soils (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000).
Soils/substrate: Stands occupy a wide range of soil textures from sands and gravels (e.g., on riparian bars and lakeshores with significant wave action) to clay loams and, rarely, clays (e.g., in seasonally flooded basins or non-riparian marshes). In some cases, an embedded fine-textured soil layer (e.g., a "clay pan" or "hardpan") may facilitate development of this vegetation. A variety of soil orders may support this vegetation, including Inceptisols (e.g., alluvial bars and lakeshores), Mollisols (e.g., wet prairies), Ultisols, and Entisols. The hydrologic regime ranges from intermittently flooded, temporarily flooded, seasonally flooded, saturated, semipermanently flooded, intermittently exposed, and permanently flooded (Cowardin et al. 1979). Where soils are consistently saturated to flooded (i.e., a saturated, semipermanently flooded or permanently flooded hydrologic regime), such as in marshes with low flow velocities and in seepages, an overlying layer of well decomposed organic matter (muck) may be present, particularly in the northern latitudes of the division; where soil muck is at least 40 cm (16 inches) deep, the soil is considered a Histosol. A condition common to all soils is at least periodic anoxic stress from saturation, which can range from intermittent to seasonal to permanent. Stands of this vegetation may occur on most of the surface geology types found in eastern temperate North America. These can produce a wide range of soil fertility and organic matter content, which, along with variation in climate and hydroperiods, accounts for much of the floristic diversity within the division.
Biogeography: This vegetation of this division is largely azonal as to climate and, therefore, biogeographically extensive. It represents a special case of shoreline-induced conditions that are common throughout the full temperature range of warm-temperate and cool-temperate climates in eastern North America, from subtropical to boreal. It occupies the Canadian [Floristic] Province and the Illinoian, Appalachian, and (in part) Austroriparian subprovinces of the Carolina [Floristic] Province, and Hudsonian subprovince of McLaughlin (2007).
Geographic Range: Vegetation of this division occurs throughout eastern North America, from the boreal zone to east of the Rocky Mountains and Chihuahuan Desert, and north and west of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains (essentially from Alberta to the Maritime Provinces in the north and from eastern New Mexico and southwestern Texas to Georgia in the south.
Nations: CA, MX, US
States/Provinces: AB, AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MB, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NB, NC, ND, NE, NF, NH, NJ, NM, NS, NY, OH, OK, ON, PA, PE, RI, SC, SD, SK, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
|US Forest Service Ecoregions (2007)|
Southwest Plateau and Plains Dry Steppe and Shrub Province
Confident or certain
Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions: 25:C, 26:C, 27:C, 28:C, 29:C, 30:C, 31:C, 32:C, 33:C, 34:C, 35:C, 36:C, 37:C, 38:C, 39:C, 40:C, 42:C, 43:C, 44:C, 45:C, 46:C, 47:C, 48:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 53:C, 54:C, 55:C, 56:C, 57:C, 58:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 62:C, 63:C, 64:C, 65:C, 66:C, 67:C, 68:C, 69:C, 70:C, 71:C, 72:C, 73:C, 74:C, 75:C, 82:C, 83:C, 84:C, 5.2.3:C, 8.1.2:C, 8.1.9:C
Confidence Level: Moderate
Confidence Level Comments:
Synonomy: >< Emergent Wetland class, palustrine system (Cowardin et al. 1979) [Cowardin type occurs across the U.S.]
>< Scrub-Shrub Wetland class, Palustrine system (Cowardin et al. 1979) [Cowardin type occurs across the U.S.]
>< Unconsolidated Shore class, palustrine system (Cowardin et al. 1979) [Cowardin type occurs across the U.S.]
= combination of 232.1, 232.2 (in part), 233.1, 242.1, 242.3, 243.1, 252.1, 252.3, and 253.1 (Brown et al. 1998) [combination of Northeastern Deciduous Swamp Scrub (232.1), Plains and Great Basin Riparian Scrub (232.2) (in part), Southeastern Mixed Deciduous and Evergreen Swamp Scrub (233.1), Northeastern Interior Marshland (242.1), Plains Interior Marshland (242.3), Southeastern Interior Marshland (243.1), Northeastern Interior (Stream and Lake) Strand (252.1), Plains Stream and Lake Strand (252.3), and Southeastern Interior Strand (253.1)]
= combination of Deep Marsh, Shallow Marsh, Seasonally Flooded Flats, Meadow, and Shrub Swamp (Golet and Larson 1974)
Concept Author(s): L.M. Cowardin, V. Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe (1979)
Author of Description: C. Lea
Version Date: 11Jan2016
- Brown, D. E., F. Reichenbacher, and S. E. Franson. 1998. A classification of North American biotic communities. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. 141 pp.
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