Invalid Unit Specified
Division Detail Report: D323
Salix interior / Juncus spp. - Eupatorium perfoliatum Wet Meadow & Shrubland Division

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
This division consists of vegetation in eastern cool-temperate and boreal North America, including the Great Plains. Stands are dominated by shrubs and/or non-hydromorphic herbaceous plants that are facultatively to obligately adapted to freshwater wetland conditions and that grow in mineral or mucky organic soils with regular (intermittent to permanent) saturated and flooded conditions.
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Translated Name:Sandbar Willow / Rush speices - Common Boneset Wet Meadow & Shrubland Division
Colloquial Name:Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
This division consists of vegetation in eastern cool-temperate North America, including the Great Plains, and excluding the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains. It is dominated by shrubs and/or non-hydromorphic herbaceous plants that are facultatively to obligately adapted to freshwater wetland conditions and that grow in mineral or mucky organic soils with regular (intermittent to permanent) saturated conditions. In general, this comprises vegetation of most of the cool-temperate freshwater wetlands of eastern North America, excluding bogs, poor fens, and tidal marshes. Genera that are fairly diagnostic of this division include Acorus, Alisma, Beckmannia, Boehmeria, Calla, Callitriche, Caltha, Cephalanthus, Chelone, Chrysosplenium, Cicuta, Cladium, Cyperus, Dulichium, Echinochloa, Eleocharis, Epilobium (in the strict sense), Eriocaulon, Eupatorium, Fimbristylis, Fuirena, Gentiana, Gratiola, Glyceria, Hydrocotyle, Juncus, Justicia, Lindernia, Ludwigia, Lycopus, Mentha, Mikania, Mimulus, Rorippa (= Nasturtium), Onoclea, Osmunda, Osmunda (= Osmundastrum), Oxypolis, Parnassia, Peltandra, Phalaris, Pilea, Platanthera (in the strict sense), Pontederia, Ptilimnium, Rorippa, Sagittaria, Saururus, Schoenoplectus, Scirpus, Scolochloa, Sium, Sparganium, Symplocarpus, Typha, Utricularia, Veratrum, Woodwardia, Xyris, and Zizania. Many individual species of Carex also are diagnostic, and strong dominance by one or more species of this genus usually indicates vegetation of this division. The division includes vegetation that occurs in shrub swamps, seepages, wet meadows, marshes, alluvial banks and bars, pond- and lakeshores, and playas. The hydrologic regime ranges from intermittently flooded, temporarily flooded, seasonally flooded, saturated, semipermanently flooded, intermittently exposed, and permanently flooded.
Stands of this division have a shrub or herbaceous physiognomy and a composition with a predominance of facultative to obligate wetland plant species (Lichvar et al. 2014) that occur on a substrate that is regularly flooded or saturated by freshwater in eastern temperate and boreal North America east of the Rocky Mountains and Chihuahuan Desert, and north of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains.

Within its range, vegetation of this division (D323) is approximately equivalent to the concept of hydrophytic vegetation, as determined by a prevalence index score of 3.0 or less (Wentworth et al. 1988, USACE 2010a, 2010b, 2012a, 2012b) and by wetland plant ratings of Lichvar et al. (2014). This vegetation greatly overlaps, but is not equivalent to, the concept of hydrophytic vegetation, as determined by the dominance (50/20) test of USACE (1987, 2010a, 2010b, 2012a, 2012b). Hydrophytic vegetation, as determined by the dominance test, includes some upland vegetation that is dominated by facultative hydrophytes (e.g., Abies balsamea, Acer rubrum). Hydric soil and wetland hydrology indicators (USACE 1987, 2010a, 2010b, 2012a, 2012b) are usually, but not always present in stands that can be attributed to this division.

Genera that are fairly diagnostic of this division (D323), except where it abuts the range of 2.C.4.Ne ~Atlantic & Gulf Coast Freshwater Wet Prairie, Marsh & Shrubland Division (D322)$$ include Acorus, Alisma, Beckmannia, Boehmeria, Calla, Callitriche, Caltha, Cephalanthus, Chelone, Chrysosplenium, Cicuta, Cladium, Cyperus, Dulichium, Echinochloa, Eleocharis, Epilobium (in the strict sense), Eriocaulon, Eupatorium, Fimbristylis, Fuirena, Gentiana, Gratiola, Glyceria, Hydrocotyle, Juncus, Justicia, Lindernia, Ludwigia, Lycopus, Mentha, Mikania, Mimulus, Rorippa (= Nasturtium), Onoclea, Osmunda, Osmundastrum, Oxypolis, Parnassia, Peltandra, Phalaris, Pilea, Platanthera (in the strict sense), Pontederia, Ptilimnium, Rorippa, Sagittaria, Saururus, Schoenoplectus, Scirpus, Scolochloa, Sium, Sparganium, Symplocarpus, Typha, Utricularia, Veratrum, Woodwardia, Xyris, and Zizania. Many individual species of Carex also are diagnostic, and strong dominance by one or more species of this genus usually indicates vegetation of this division.
The eastern boreal group was added to this type after the main description was written, and are not reflected in the description. The distinction between this division (D323) and 2.C.4.Ne Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland Division (D322) probably warrants additional review clarification. Presently, the latter includes some freshwater wetland vegetation of cool-temperate climates on the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (i.e., Northern & Mid-Atlantic Coastal Wetland Group (G752) which occurs from Virginia to the Maritime Provinces) that may be more related to vegetation of this cool-temperate division than to warm-temperate vegetation on the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains. A cool-temperate versus warm-temperate (latitude) distinction between the divisions should be examined as an alternative that may provide more diagnostic consistency than the geomorphic (Coastal Plain or not) distinction.
Synonomy: >< Emergent Wetland class, palustrine system (Cowardin et al. 1979) [Cowardin type occurs across the U.S.]
>< Scrub-Shrub Wetland class, Palustrine system (Cowardin et al. 1979) [Cowardin type occurs across the U.S.]
>< Unconsolidated Shore class, palustrine system (Cowardin et al. 1979) [Cowardin type occurs across the U.S.]
= combination of 232.1, 232.2 (in part), 233.1, 242.1, 242.3, 243.1, 252.1, 252.3, and 253.1 (Brown et al. 1998) [combination of Northeastern Deciduous Swamp Scrub (232.1), Plains and Great Basin Riparian Scrub (232.2) (in part), Southeastern Mixed Deciduous and Evergreen Swamp Scrub (233.1), Northeastern Interior Marshland (242.1), Plains Interior Marshland (242.3), Southeastern Interior Marshland (243.1), Northeastern Interior (Stream and Lake) Strand (252.1), Plains Stream and Lake Strand (252.3), and Southeastern Interior Strand (253.1)]
= combination of Deep Marsh, Shallow Marsh, Seasonally Flooded Flats, Meadow, and Shrub Swamp (Golet and Larson 1974)

Related Type Name:

Short Citation:
  • Brown et al. 1998
  • Cowardin et al. 1979
  • Faber-Langendoen et al. 2017a
  • Golet and Larson 1974
  • Lichvar et al. 2014
  • McLaughlin 2007
  • Mitsch and Gosselink 2000
  • USACE 1987
  • USACE 2010a
  • USACE 2010b
  • USACE 2012a
  • USACE 2012b
  • Wentworth et al. 1988b
States/Provinces:AB, AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MB, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NB, NC, ND, NE, NF, NH, NJ, NM, NS, NY, OH, OK, ON, PA, PE, RI, SC, SD, SK, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Nations:CA, MX, US
Range:Vegetation of this division occurs throughout eastern North America, from the boreal zone to east of the Rocky Mountains and Chihuahuan Desert, and north and west of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains (essentially from Alberta to the Maritime Provinces in the north and from eastern New Mexico and southwestern Texas to Georgia in the south.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
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This vegetation typically is dominated by some combination of shrubs and/or herbs, sometimes with scattered trees. Trees from adjacent upland stands may overhang small stands and provide shade. Occasionally, bryophytes (e.g., Sphagnum spp.) may be important. Where present, a shrub layer may be either tall (e.g., up to 8 m) or short (<2 m). Herbaceous layers often are dominated by graminoids (grasses sedges, rushes, cattails, and others) that are short to tall (e.g., up to 5 m) but can also be forb-dominated, especially in shadier settings. Vegetation density is usually moderately high to high, but some stands, especially those that experience prolonged inundation, along with substrate disturbance (e.g., on alluvial bars or lakeshores) can be quite sparse (e.g., <1% cover). In larger wetland complexes with gradual (gently sloping) transitions to upland along their boundaries, several different vegetation types, aligned along the hydroperiod gradient, may occur within close proximity (e.g., marsh to wet meadow to shrub swamp).
The floristic composition of vegetation of this division is exceedingly diverse. The following description accounts for the most frequent and widespread taxa. For taxa named at the species level, the predominant wetland regions (as defined by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (2010a, 2010b, 2012a, 2012b) (Lichvar et al. 2014)) in which they occur are listed in parentheses. These regions are: (1) Northcentral and Northeast (NCNE), (2) Eastern Mountains and Piedmont (EMP), (3) Midwest (MW), and (4) Great Plains (GP). In turn, these regions approximately correspond to the following floristic areas of McLaughlin (2007), as they occur within the range of this USNVC division: (1) the Canadian Province, (2) the Appalachian and Austroriparian (in part) subprovinces of the Carolina Province, (3) the Illinoian subprovince of the Carolina Province, and (4) the Saskatchewan, Kansan, and Comanchian subprovinces of the Great Plains Province (GP). The Great Plains area is the region that is most divergent in floristic composition from the rest of the division. Eastern boreal stands were added to this type after the main description was written, and are not reflected in the list below.

Frequent shrub species include Acer rubrum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (NCNE), Alnus serrulata (NCNE, EMP), Amelanchier canadensis (NCNE, EMP), Amorpha fruticosa (EMP, MW, GP), Artemisia cana ssp. cana (GP), Betula nigra (EMP, MW), Cephalanthus occidentalis (NCNE, EMP, MW), Clethra alnifolia (NCNE, EMP), Cornus sericea (= Cornus alba) (NCNE, GP), Cornus amomum (EMP, MW), Cornus racemosa (NCNE, EMP, MW), Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda (NCNE), Hypericum densiflorum (EMP), Hypericum prolificum (EMP, MW), Ilex verticillata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Lindera benzoin (NCNE, EMP, MW), Lonicera villosa (NCNE), Lyonia ligustrina (NCNE, EMP), Myrica gale (NCNE), Physocarpus opulifolius (NCNE, EMP, MW), Rhododendron arborescens (EMP), Rhododendron viscosum (NCNE, EMP), Ribes spp. (NCNE), Rosa palustris (NCNE, EMP, MW), Salix spp., Salix discolor, Salix interior, Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis, Sanguisorba canadensis (NCNE), Spiraea alba var. latifolia (NCNE, EMP), Spiraea tomentosa (NCNE, EMP, MW), Toxicodendron vernix (NCNE, EMP, MW), Vaccinium corymbosum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Viburnum dentatum (EMP, MW), Viburnum nudum (NCNE, EMP, , and Viburnum opulus var. americanum (NCNE, MW). Non-native shrubs include Elaeagnus angustifolia (GP), Frangula alnus (NCNE, MW), Ligustrum sinense (EMP), Lonicera spp. (NCNE, EMP, MW), and Rhamnus cathartica (NCNE, MW, GP).

Many stands are dominated by or have an important component of graminoids; among the more prominent genera are Acorus (NCNE, MW, GP), Carex spp., Cyperus spp. , Eleocharis spp., Glyceria spp., Juncus spp., Schoenoplectus spp., Scirpus (all), Sparganium spp., Typha spp., and Zizania (NCNE, MW). Other herbaceous genera that are frequent include Alisma spp., Bidens spp., Callitriche spp., Epilobium spp., Equisetum spp., Eupatorium spp., Eutrochium (= Eupatoriadelphus) spp., Fimbristylis (NCNE, EMP, MW), Gentiana spp., Gratiola spp., Helenium spp., Hydrocotyle (NCNE, EMP, MW), Lobelia spp., Lycopus spp., Mentha spp., Mimulus spp., Osmunda (NCNE, EMP, MW), Parnassia (NCNE, EMP, MW), Phyla (EMP, MW, GP), Platanthera (NCNE, EMP, MW), Polygonum section Persicaria (= Persicaria) spp., Ranunculus spp., Rhexia (NCNE, EMP), Rorippa spp., Sagittaria spp., Utricularia spp., and Woodwardia (NCNE, EMP, MW).

Additional herbaceous species that are frequent across large areas of the range of the division include Alopecurus aequalis (NCNE, GP), Andropogon glomeratus (EMP), Argentina anserina (= Potentilla anserina) (NCNE, MW, GP), Asclepias incarnata, Beckmannia syzigachne (GP), Boehmeria cylindrica (NCNE, EMP, MW), Calamagrostis canadensis (NCNE, MW), Calamagrostis coarctata (EMP), Calamagrostis stricta (GP), Calla palustris (NCNE), Caltha palustris (NCNE, MW), Campanula aparinoides (NCNE, EMP, MW), Cardamine bulbosa (EMP, MW), Cardamine pensylvanica (NCNE, EMP, MW), Chelone glabra (NCNE, EMP, MW), Chrysosplenium americanum (NCNE, EMP), Cicuta maculata, Cirsium muticum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Cladium mariscoides (NCNE), Clematis ligusticifolia (GP), Clematis virginiana (NCNE, EMP, MW), Commelina virginica (EMP), Deschampsia caespitosa (NCNE), Dichanthelium clandestinum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Diodia virginiana (EMP), Doellingeria umbellata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Dryopteris cristata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Dulichium arundinaceum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Echinochloa muricata, Eragrostis frankii (EMP, MW), Eragrostis hypnoides (EMP, MW, GP), Eriocaulon aquaticum (NCNE), Euthamia graminifolia, Fuirena simplex (GP), Galium asprellum (NCNE, MW), Galium tinctorium (NCNE, EMP, MW), Geum rivale (NCNE), Heracleum maximum (NCNE, MW), Hordeum jubatum (NCNE, MW, GP), Hypericum mutilum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Impatiens capensis (NCNE, EMP, MW), Iris versicolor (NCNE), Iris virginica (EMP, MW), Iva annua (EMP, MW, GP), Justicia americana (EMP, MW), Leersia oryzoides, Leptochloa fusca (= Leptochloa fascicularis, = Diplachne fusca) (MW, GP), Lindernia dubia, Ludwigia alternifolia (EMP, MW), Ludwigia palustris (NCNE, EMP, MW), Lysimachia ciliata, Lysimachia terrestris (NCNE, EMP, MW), Menyanthes trifoliata (NCNE), Mikania scandens (EMP), Onoclea sensibilis (NCNE, EMP, MW), Osmunda cinnamomea (= Osmundastrum cinnamomeum) (NCNE, EMP, MW), Oxypolis rigidior (EMP, MW), Packera aurea (NCNE, EMP, MW), Panicum dichotomiflorum, Panicum rigidulum (EMP, MW), Panicum verrucosum (EMP), Panicum virgatum, Pascopyrum smithii (GP), Peltandra virginica (NCNE, EMP, MW), Phalaris arundinacea, Phlox maculata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Pilea pumila (NCNE, EMP, MW), Poa palustris (NCNE, MW, GP), Pontederia cordata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Ptilimnium capillaceum (EMP), Rhynchospora capitellata (NCNE, EMP, MW), Rubus pubescens (NCNE), Rudbeckia laciniata, Rumex aquaticus var. fenestratus (= Rumex occidentalis) (GP), Rumex verticillatus (NCNE, EMP, MW), Saururus cernuus (EMP, MW), Scolochloa festucacea (GP), Scutellaria lateriflora, Senecio congestus (= Tephroseris palustris) (GP), Sisyrinchium angustifolium (NCNE, EMP, MW), Sium suave, Solidago gigantea, Solidago patula (NCNE, EMP, MW), Solidago uliginosa (NCNE), Spartina pectinata (NCNE, MW, GP), Sphenopholis obtusata (EMP, MW, GP), Stachys pilosa (NCNE, MW, GP), Symplocarpus foetidus (NCNE, EMP, MW), Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Symphyotrichum puniceum (NCNE, EMP, MW), Teucrium canadense, Thalictrum pubescens (NCNE, EMP), Thelypteris noveboracensis (= Parathelypteris noveboracensis) (NCNE, EMP, MW), Thelypteris palustris (NCNE, EMP, MW), Veratrum viride (NCNE, EMP), Vernonia noveboracensis (NCNE, EMP), Veronica scutellata (NCNE), Viola cucullata (NCNE, EMP, MW), and Viola macloskeyi ssp. pallens (= Viola pallens) (NCNE, EMP). Introduced species include Agrostis gigantea (NCNE, EMP, MW), Agrostis stolonifera, Arundo donax (EMP), Iris pseudacorus (EMP, MW), Lythrum salicaria (NCNE, EMP, MW), Lysimachia nummularia (NCNE, EMP, MW), Microstegium vimineum (EMP, MW), Phragmites australis ssp. americanus, Poa trivialis (NCNE, EMP), Polygonum cuspidatum (= Fallopia japonica, = Reynoutria japonica) (NCNE, EMP, MW), Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (= Nasturtium officinale), Veronica anagallis-aquatica, and Xyris montana (NCNE).
Settings most often are flat, depressed, or gently sloping terrain, where surface water collects, groundwater emerges, and/or to which surface water from large waterbodies (lakes, ponds streams, rivers) rises. Settings include marshes, wet meadows, shrub swamps, depressional swamps, seepages, alluvial bars, riverbanks, pondshores, lakeshores, and others. A key environmental factor is periodic (intermittent to permanent) soil saturation and flooding and anoxic stress on vegetation. Stands tend to be larger and more frequent in glaciated regions and near the Coastal Plain, where geomorphic processes have favored the development of gentle slopes (including basins) on which the rate of undrained surface water accumulation tends to be greater than in regions of higher topographic relief.

Climate: This vegetation is largely azonal in respect to climate, extending essentially throughout the full temperature range of cool-temperate and eastern boreal climates in eastern North America, from subtropical to boreal. Average annual temperature ranges from a high of about 19°C (66°F) (Columbus, GA) to around a low of 4°C (39°F) (Duluth, MN). Precipitation ranges from 100 to 160 cm (39-63 inches) per year in the eastern part of the range to about 5 to 6 cm (13-15 inches) per year at the western edge of the Great Plains. All other factors being equal, development of this vegetation is favored in climates with higher precipitation and cooler temperatures. The latter condition results in lower evapotranspiration rates of water (which allows more precipitation to become surface water). It also results in shorter periods of soil microbial activity that would otherwise reduce the amount of soil fine organic matter, the capacity of which to hold water exceeds that of most mineral soils (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000).

Soils/substrate: Stands occupy a wide range of soil textures from sands and gravels (e.g., on riparian bars and lakeshores with significant wave action) to clay loams and, rarely, clays (e.g., in seasonally flooded basins or non-riparian marshes). In some cases, an embedded fine-textured soil layer (e.g., a "clay pan" or "hardpan") may facilitate development of this vegetation. A variety of soil orders may support this vegetation, including Inceptisols (e.g., alluvial bars and lakeshores), Mollisols (e.g., wet prairies), Ultisols, and Entisols. The hydrologic regime ranges from intermittently flooded, temporarily flooded, seasonally flooded, saturated, semipermanently flooded, intermittently exposed, and permanently flooded (Cowardin et al. 1979). Where soils are consistently saturated to flooded (i.e., a saturated, semipermanently flooded or permanently flooded hydrologic regime), such as in marshes with low flow velocities and in seepages, an overlying layer of well decomposed organic matter (muck) may be present, particularly in the northern latitudes of the division; where soil muck is at least 40 cm (16 inches) deep, the soil is considered a Histosol. A condition common to all soils is at least periodic anoxic stress from saturation, which can range from intermittent to seasonal to permanent. Stands of this vegetation may occur on most of the surface geology types found in eastern temperate North America. These can produce a wide range of soil fertility and organic matter content, which, along with variation in climate and hydroperiods, accounts for much of the floristic diversity within the division.

Biogeography: This vegetation of this division is largely azonal as to climate and, therefore, biogeographically extensive. It represents a special case of shoreline-induced conditions that are common throughout the full temperature range of warm-temperate and cool-temperate climates in eastern North America, from subtropical to boreal. It occupies the Canadian [Floristic] Province and the Illinoian, Appalachian, and (in part) Austroriparian subprovinces of the Carolina [Floristic] Province, and Hudsonian subprovince of McLaughlin (2007).
Moderate
The frequency and duration of saturation (hydroperiod) differentiate this vegetation from that of uplands and also plays a major factor in the determination of both floristic composition and vegetation physiognomy and structure. Increasing soil saturation leads to increasing anoxic stress, which is a significant local process that determines the composition of this vegetation. Longer periods of saturation or flooding favor taxa that are more tolerant of anoxic conditions and, in general, favors the persistence of a physiognomy dominated by herbaceous plants over one dominated by woody plants, and the persistence of shrubs over that of trees. Prolonged drought periods may reverse the vegetation trends that long hydroperiods favor. Erosion of existing substrate and deposition of new substrate is an important factor in some units of this division, particularly those associated with alluvial bars and lake shorelines with periodic disturbances from waves associated with storm surges. Human-induced changes in vegetation composition and structure can occur from lowering of water tables due to surface and groundwater withdrawal and to stream incision following excessive surface water runoff from land cover modifications. Invasive non-native species, which are especially prolific in alluvial settings with substrate turnover and upstream dams along riparian areas, can alter inundation and substrate turnover patterns in alluvial wetlands. For some types in the division, occasional natural fires may work in concert with anoxic stress to prevent establishment of trees.
25:C, 26:C, 27:C, 28:C, 29:C, 30:C, 31:C, 32:C, 33:C, 34:C, 35:C, 36:C, 37:C, 38:C, 39:C, 40:C, 42:C, 43:C, 44:C, 45:C, 46:C, 47:C, 48:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 53:C, 54:C, 55:C, 56:C, 57:C, 58:C, 59:C, 60:C, 61:C, 62:C, 63:C, 64:C, 65:C, 66:C, 67:C, 68:C, 69:C, 70:C, 71:C, 72:C, 73:C, 74:C, 75:C, 82:C, 83:C, 84:C, 5.2.3:C, 8.1.2:C, 8.1.9:C
Authors:
C. Lea      Version Date: 11Jan2016


References:
  • Brown, D. E., F. Reichenbacher, and S. E. Franson. 1998. A classification of North American biotic communities. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. 141 pp.
  • Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC. 103 pp.
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., J. Drake, S. Gawler, M. Hall, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, L. Sneddon, K. Schulz, J. Teague, M. Russo, K. Snow, and P. Comer, editors. 2010-2017a. Divisions, Macrogroups and Groups for the Revised U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. plus appendices. [in preparation]
  • Golet, F. C., and J. S. Larson. 1974. Classification of freshwater wetlands in the glaciated northeast. Resources Publication 116. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 56 pp.
  • Lichvar, R. W., M. Butterwick, N. C. Melvin, and W. N. Kirchner. 2014. The national wetland plant list: 2014 update of wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2014-41:1-42.
  • McLaughlin, S. P. 2007. Tundra to Tropics: The floristic plant geography of North America. Sida Botanical Miscellany Publication 30:1-58.
  • Mitsch, W. J., and J. G. Gosselink. 2000. Wetlands. Third edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 920 pp.
  • USACE [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers]. 1987. Corps of Engineers wetlands delineation manual. Technical Report Y-87-1. U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. 169 pp.
  • USACE [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers]. 2010a. Regional supplement to the Corps of Engineers wetland delineation manual: Great Plains region (Version 2.0). J. S. Wakeley, R. W. Lichvar, and C. V. Noble, editors. Publication ERDC/EL TR-10-1. U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS. 152 pp.
  • USACE [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers]. 2010b. Regional supplement to the Corps of Engineers wetland delineation manual: Midwest region (Version 2.0). J. S. Wakeley, R. W. Lichvar, and C. V. Noble, editors. Publication ERDC/EL TR-10-16. U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS. 152 pp.
  • USACE [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers]. 2012a. Regional supplement to the Corps of Engineers wetland delineation manual: Eastern mountains and piedmont region (Version 2.0). J. S. Wakeley, R. W. Lichvar, and C. V. Noble, editors. Publication ERDC/EL TR-12-9. U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS. 179 pp.
  • USACE [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers]. 2012b. Regional supplement to the Corps of Engineers wetland delineation manual: Northcentral and northeast region (Version 2.0). J. S. Wakeley, R. W. Lichvar, and C. V. Noble, editors. Publication ERDC/EL TR-12-1. U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS. 175 pp.
  • Wentworth, T. R., G. P. Johnson, and R. L. Kologiski. 1988b. Designation of wetlands by weighted averages of vegetation data: A preliminary evaluation. Water Resources Bulletin 24:389-396.


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

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About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Division level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

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  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Non U.S. Government
  • NatureServe (NS)
  • Ecological Society of America (ESA)

Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)