Invalid Unit Specified
M880 Eastern North American Wet Shoreline Vegetation Macrogroup

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence: This macrogroup comprises highly variable herbaceous and shrub vegetation occurring on the shores of lakes and low-energy rivers in the eastern U.S. and adjacent Canada.
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Eastern North American Wet Shoreline Vegetation Macrogroup
Colloquial Name: Eastern North American Wet Shoreline Vegetation
Hierarchy Level: Macrogroup
Type Concept: This widely ranging macrogroup comprises a large number of variable vegetation types that occur on the shores of rivers and lakes in the eastern U.S. and adjacent Canada. The patchy vegetation is typically composed of sparsely vegetated mud, sand, gravel or bedrock shores. Characteristic species vary over the range. Typical shrubs may include Alnus serrulata, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Cornus spp., Hypericum densiflorum, Physocarpus opulifolius, Salix spp., and stunted individuals of floodplain trees such as Acer saccharinum, Betula nigra, and Platanus occidentalis. The herbaceous flora is highly variable but often includes Bacopa monnieri, Boehmeria cylindrica, a number of Cyperus spp., Dulichium arundinaceum, Eragrostis hypnoides, Justicia americana, Ludwigia palustris, Lindernia dubia, Polygonum spp., Saururus cernuus, Schoenoplectus pungens, Scirpus cyperinus, and Zizaniopsis miliacea. In the Great Lakes portion of the range, scattered woody trees and shrubs are found throughout, including Abies balsamea, Alnus incana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, and Populus tremuloides. Herbs include Argentina anserina, Calamagrostis canadensis, Carex buxbaumii, Carex castanea, Danthonia spicata, Deschampsia caespitosa, and Trichophorum caespitosum.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Patchy to sparse mixtures of shrubs and herbs on sandy to rocky lakeshores and low-energy rivershores, above the zone of regular inundation.
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: Vegetation in these habitats has not been well-sampled. Physiognomy is a combination of emergent perennial (semi-terrestrial) and annual terrestrial. Note that some of these may belong in Central Interior-Appalachian Open Depression Pond Group (G599), and, in time, with better information, the riverine versus non-riverine distinction may not be a group-level distinction, just as riverine prairies and non-riverine (upland) prairies may not be. The hydrologic regime probably has a more profound influence on floristic composition than does the specific hydrologic setting (e.g., rivershore versus pond- or lakeshore, for wet shoreline types, rivershore versus upland for prairie types). Character species might include a number of annual Polygonum spp. and others. Justicia americana would be highly diagnostic.
Similar NVC Types:
M111 Eastern North American Cliff & Rock Vegetation, note:
M066 Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Fresh-Oligohaline Tidal Marsh, note:
M881 Eastern North American Riverscour Vegetation, note: is often patchier, flood-battered, and highly variable; substrate is usually flood-scoured mineral soil or bedrock outcrops or slabs.
Physiognomy and Structure: Shrub- or herb-dominated vegetation, often patchy and/or sparse. These shores may be characterized by narrow zones of vegetation on rocks or sandy beaches.
Floristics: Characteristic species vary over the range. Typical shrubs may include Alnus serrulata, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Cornus spp., Hypericum densiflorum, Physocarpus opulifolius, Salix spp., and stunted individuals of floodplain trees such as Acer saccharinum, Betula nigra, and Platanus occidentalis. The herbaceous flora is highly variable but often includes Bacopa monnieri, Boehmeria cylindrica, a number of Cyperus spp., Dulichium arundinaceum, Eragrostis hypnoides, Justicia americana, Ludwigia palustris, Lindernia dubia, Polygonum spp., Saururus cernuus, Schoenoplectus pungens, Scirpus cyperinus, and Zizaniopsis miliacea. In the Great Lakes portion of the range, scattered woody trees and shrubs are found throughout, including Abies balsamea, Alnus incana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, and Populus tremuloides. Herbs include Argentina anserina, Calamagrostis canadensis, Carex buxbaumii, Carex castanea, Danthonia spicata, Deschampsia caespitosa, and Trichophorum caespitosum.
Dynamics: Wave action and ice are factors in the open vegetation; natural or anthropogenic drawdown during the growing season may be locally important.
Environmental Description: The substrate is sandy to gravelly, sometimes consolidated rock; there may be muddy patches. Some areas may be briefly inundated during high water periods. Ice-scour is not as major an influence as on high-energy rivers, although it may be locally important.
Geographic Range: This macrogroup has a broad range, found from northern New England and northern New York west across the upper Great Lakes, Manitoba, and adjacent Canada, southwards discontinuously to Texas.
Nations: CA, US
States/Provinces: AL, CT, DE, GA, KY, MA, MB, MD, ME, MI, MN, MS, NB, NC, NH, NJ, NS, NY, OH, OK, ON, PA, PE, QC, RI, SC, SK, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
US Forest Service Ecoregions (2007)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Southwest Plateau and Plains Dry Steppe and Shrub Province
Province Code: 315    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Superior Uplands Section
Section Code: 212K     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Plot Analysis Summary:
Confidence Level: Low
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: GNR
Greasons:
Concept Lineage:
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy: > Association-types of the Lake Series (Hill 1923)
Concept Author(s): A.F. Hill (1923)
Author of Description: S.C. Gawler and L. Sneddon
Acknowledgements:
Version Date: 15Oct2014
References:
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., J. Drake, S. Gawler, M. Hall, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, L. Sneddon, K. Schulz, J. Teague, M. Russo, K. Snow, and P. Comer, editors. 2010-2017a. Divisions, Macrogroups and Groups for the Revised U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. plus appendices. [in preparation]
  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.
  • Hill, A. F. 1923. The vegetation of the Penobscot Bay region, Maine. Proceedings of the Portland Society of Natural History 3:307-438.
  • Minnesota DNR [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources]. 2010a. Ecological system summaries and class factsheets - upland grasslands, shrublands, and sparse vegetation. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul. [http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/npc/uplandgrassland.html]
  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.
  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2011. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 1.4. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]
  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2000. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.