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A3408 Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor Floodplain Forest Alliance

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence: These floodplain swamp forests are found along smaller rivers in southern New England and the northern Piedmont and are dominated by some combination of Acer rubrum, Carya cordiformis, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Nyssa sylvatica, Platanus occidentalis, Quercus bicolor, Quercus palustris, and Ulmus americana.
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor Floodplain Forest Alliance
Colloquial Name: Central Appalachian-Northeast Pin Oak Floodplain Forest
Hierarchy Level: Alliance
Type Concept: This floodplain forest occurs along smaller rivers in southern New England and the northern Piedmont. The setting can range from high terraces to any broad flat area with diffuse or braided drainage. The canopies of examples in New England and the northern Piedmont contain Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Quercus palustris, and Ulmus americana, with Acer rubrum and occasionally with Quercus bicolor. In addition, Carya cordiformis, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus nigra, Nyssa sylvatica, and/or Platanus occidentalis may be present.
Diagnostic Characteristics: These are floodplain and swamp forests typically dominated by Quercus palustris and Quercus bicolor.
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features: These floodplain and swamp forests are typically dominated by Quercus palustris and Quercus bicolor.
Classification Comments: No Data Available
Similar NVC Types:
Quercus alba - Fagus grandifolia Flatwoods & Swamp Forest Alliance, note:
Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor Flatwoods & Swamp Forest Alliance, note:
Acer rubrum - Fraxinus spp. - Quercus bicolor Swamp Forest Alliance, note:
Physiognomy and Structure: Stands are generally characterized by a closed to partially open canopy of wetland trees. The shrub layer is often poorly developed, and the herbaceous layer is variable in composition and usually dense.
Floristics: The canopies of examples in New England and the northern Piedmont contain Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Quercus palustris, and Ulmus americana, with Acer rubrum and occasionally with Quercus bicolor. In addition, Carya cordiformis, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus nigra, Nyssa sylvatica, and/or Platanus occidentalis may be present. Carpinus caroliniana may be present as a small tree. The shrub layer includes Cornus amomum, Cornus obliqua, Lindera benzoin, Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis, and/or Viburnum recognitum. The herbaceous layer is variable in composition and usually dense. There may be abundant sedges, including Carex crinita, Carex grayi, Carex intumescens, Carex lupulina, Carex lurida, Carex prasina, or Carex rosea, with additional species such as Arisaema triphyllum, Athyrium filix-femina, Cinna arundinacea, Geum canadense, Impatiens spp., Iris versicolor, Leersia virginica, Onoclea sensibilis, Panax trifolius, Polygonum virginianum (= Tovara virginiana), Symplocarpus foetidus, Toxicodendron radicans, and Viola sororia.
Dynamics: No Data Available
Environmental Description: The environment of this forest type includes alluvial deposits in the floodplains and terraces of small rivers. Flooding occurs during local events, especially during winter months. These areas can be seasonally, temporarily or intermittently flooded, often with networks of small drainages and pools throughout. Many of these areas were previously used as pasture.
Geographic Range: This alliance is found in the northeastern U.S., in the northern Piedmont and southern New England, as well as in Quebec, Canada.
Nations: CA,US
States/Provinces: CT, MA, NH, NJ, NY, PA, QC, RI, VA, WV
US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Confidence Level: Moderate
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: GNR
Greasons:
Concept Lineage: This new alliance contains one association each from A.301, A.329, and A.3004.
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Quercus palustris - Quercus bicolor Flooded & Swamp Forest Alliance
Obsolete Parents:
Central Interior-Appalachian Flatwoods & Swamp Forest
Central Interior-Great Lakes Flatwoods & Swamp Forest
Synonomy: >< perched swamp white oak swamp (Reschke 1990)
Concept Author(s): M. Pyne, in Faber-Langendoen et al. (2013)
Author of Description: S. Menard and M. Pyne
Acknowledgements: We have incorporated information compiled by D.J. Allard and D. Faber-Langendoen.
Version Date: 20Dec2018
References:
  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., and Midwest State Natural Heritage Program Ecologists. 1996. Terrestrial vegetation of the midwest United States. International classification of ecological communities: Terrestrial vegetation of the United States. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., J. Drake, M. Hall, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, L. Sneddon, K. Snow, and J. Teague. 2013-2019b. Screening alliances for induction into the U.S. National Vegetation Classification: Part 1 - Alliance concept review. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.
  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
  • Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.
  • Smith, T. L. 1991. Natural ecological communities of Pennsylvania. First revision. Unpublished report. Pennsylvania Science Office of The Nature Conservancy, Middletown, PA. 111 pp.
  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2001. Classification of natural communities of Massachusetts. September 2001 draft. Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.