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Alliance Detail Report: A3373
Eriophorum virginicum - Dulichium arundinaceum - Carex echinata Seep Alliance

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
This alliance accommodates acidic herbaceous fen or "bog" vegetation from the Allegheny Mountains region of Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland as well as related areas of New York and Pennsylvania. This vegetation is found on flat to gently sloping topography of terraces, toeslopes, shallow headwater basins, swales, moats of bog mats, and pondshores.
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Translated Name:Tawny Cottongrass - Threeway Sedge - Star Sedge Seep Alliance
Colloquial Name:Allegheny Mountain Herbaceous Seep
This alliance accommodates acidic herbaceous fen or "bog" vegetation from the Allegheny Mountains region of Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland as well as related areas of New York and Pennsylvania. Typical components of this community type include Carex echinata, Carex folliculata, Dulichium arundinaceum, Eriophorum virginicum, Juncus brevicaudatus, Juncus canadensis, Juncus subcaudatus, and Solidago uliginosa. Other common herbs include Carex gynandra, Carex trisperma, Doellingeria umbellata (= Aster umbellatus), Drosera rotundifolia var. rotundifolia, Epilobium leptophyllum, Galium tinctorium, Juncus effusus, Osmunda cinnamomea, Scirpus cyperinus, Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum, and Viola cucullata. Sphagnum spp. (Sphagnum recurvum, Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum fallax, and others) may also be present. Patches of low shrubs and stunted trees are also present in some examples, particularly Picea rubens and Acer rubrum. Shrubs may include Menziesia pilosa, Kalmia latifolia, Vaccinium angustifolium, and Vaccinium myrtilloides. The dwarf-shrubs Vaccinium oxycoccos, Vaccinium macrocarpon, and Rubus hispidus may be present in some associations. This vegetation is found on flat to gently sloping topography of terraces, toeslopes, shallow headwater basins, swales, moats of bog mats, and pondshores. Some older stands typically occur over shallow bedrock, where they are kept open by high water tables. Some habitats typically have pronounced hummock-and-hollow microtopography. Groundwater discharge may be barely perceptible, or may appear as flowing seeps and braided streamlets. The underlying bedrock may consist of acidic sandstone, shale or limestone. The substrate is poorly to very poorly drained shallow peat or muck or sand.
This alliance contains acidic herbaceous fen or "bog" vegetation from the Allegheny Mountains region of Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland as well as related areas of New York and Pennsylvania. The criteria for distinguishing it from other alliances include floristic ones as well as biogeographic ones.
This alliance (A3373) contains both seepage and non-seepage acidic peat associations, some of which may better fit with Dulichium arundinaceum - Carex canescens Sub-boreal Acidic Graminoid Fen Alliance (A3452) in Eastern North American Sub-boreal Bog & Acidic Fen Group (G745).
Synonomy: ? Sinkhole wetland (Edinger et al. 2002)

Related Type Name:

Short Citation:
  • Edinger et al. 2002
  • Faber-Langendoen et al. 2017b
  • Fike 1999
  • Zimmerman et al. 2012
States/Provinces:MD, NY, PA, VA, WV
Nations:US
Range:The range of this vegetation includes the Central Appalachians and Alleghany Plateau regions from West Virginia north to Pennsylvania. In New York, examples of this alliance are presumably in the High Alleghany Plateau.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name:Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code:M221   Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
Section Name:Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code:M221A     Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
This community type is predominantly herbaceous but contains patches of low shrubs and stunted trees. Herbaceous composition is somewhat variable, with a variety of graminoids and forbs present in the various associations. Mosses, including Sphagnum spp., may also be present.
Typical components of this community type include Carex echinata, Carex folliculata, Dulichium arundinaceum, Eriophorum virginicum, Juncus brevicaudatus, Juncus canadensis, Juncus subcaudatus, and Solidago uliginosa. Other common herbs include Carex gynandra, Carex trisperma, Doellingeria umbellata (= Aster umbellatus), Drosera rotundifolia var. rotundifolia, Epilobium leptophyllum, Galium tinctorium, Juncus effusus, Osmunda cinnamomea, Scirpus cyperinus, Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum, and Viola cucullata. Sphagnum spp. (Sphagnum recurvum, Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum fallax, and others) may also be present. Patches of low shrubs and stunted trees are also present in some examples, particularly Picea rubens and Acer rubrum. Shrubs may include Menziesia pilosa, Kalmia latifolia, Vaccinium angustifolium, and Vaccinium myrtilloides. The dwarf-shrubs Vaccinium oxycoccos, Vaccinium macrocarpon, and Rubus hispidus may be present in some associations.
This vegetation is found on flat to gently sloping topography of terraces, toeslopes, shallow headwater basins, swales, moats of bog mats, and pondshores. Some older stands typically occur over shallow bedrock, where they are kept open by high water tables. Some habitats typically have pronounced hummock-and-hollow microtopography. Groundwater discharge may be barely perceptible, or may appear as flowing seeps and braided streamlets. The underlying bedrock may consist of acidic sandstone, shale or limestone. The substrate is poorly to very poorly drained shallow peat or muck or sand.
Moderate
No Data Available
Authors:
M. Pyne and D. Faber-Langendoen      Version Date: 18Dec2014


References:
  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., J. Drake, M. Hall, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, L. Sneddon, K. Snow, and J. Teague. 2013-2017b. Screening alliances for induction into the U.S. National Vegetation Classification: Part 1 - Alliance concept review. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.
  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

Date Accessed:

To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

About spatial standards:
The United States Federal Geographic Data Committee (hereafter called the FGDC) is tasked to develop geospatial data standards that will enable sharing of spatial data among producers and users and support the growing National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), acting under the Office of Management Budget (OMB) Circular A-16 (OMB 1990, 2000) and Executive Order #12906 (Clinton 1994) as amended by Executive Order #13286 (Bush 2003). FGDC subcommittees and working groups, in consultation and cooperation with state, local, tribal, private, academic, and international communities, develop standards for the content, quality, and transferability of geospatial data. FGDC standards are developed through a structured process, integrated with one another to the extent possible, supportable by the current vendor community (but are independent of specific technologies), and publicly available.

About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Alliance level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

U.S. Government
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Department of the Interior (USDI)
  • Forest Service (FS) - Chair
  • National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS)
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)
  • U.S. Navy (NAVY)
  • Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
  • National Park Service (NPS)
  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Non U.S. Government
  • NatureServe (NS)
  • Ecological Society of America (ESA)

Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)
We have incorporated significant descriptive information previously compiled by K.D. Patterson and A.S. Weakley.