Invalid Unit Specified
A3373 Eriophorum virginicum - Dulichium arundinaceum - Carex echinata Seep Alliance

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence: This alliance accommodates acidic herbaceous fen or "bog" vegetation from the Allegheny Mountains region of Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland as well as related areas of New York and Pennsylvania. This vegetation is found on flat to gently sloping topography of terraces, toeslopes, shallow headwater basins, swales, moats of bog mats, and pondshores.
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Tawny Cottongrass - Threeway Sedge - Star Sedge Seep Alliance
Colloquial Name: Allegheny Mountain Herbaceous Seep
Hierarchy Level: Alliance
Type Concept: This alliance accommodates acidic herbaceous fen or "bog" vegetation from the Allegheny Mountains region of Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland as well as related areas of New York and Pennsylvania. Typical components of this community type include Carex echinata, Carex folliculata, Dulichium arundinaceum, Eriophorum virginicum, Juncus brevicaudatus, Juncus canadensis, Juncus subcaudatus, and Solidago uliginosa. Other common herbs include Carex gynandra, Carex trisperma, Doellingeria umbellata (= Aster umbellatus), Drosera rotundifolia var. rotundifolia, Epilobium leptophyllum, Galium tinctorium, Juncus effusus, Osmunda cinnamomea, Scirpus cyperinus, Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum, and Viola cucullata. Sphagnum spp. (Sphagnum recurvum, Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum fallax, and others) may also be present. Patches of low shrubs and stunted trees are also present in some examples, particularly Picea rubens and Acer rubrum. Shrubs may include Menziesia pilosa, Kalmia latifolia, Vaccinium angustifolium, and Vaccinium myrtilloides. The dwarf-shrubs Vaccinium oxycoccos, Vaccinium macrocarpon, and Rubus hispidus may be present in some associations. This vegetation is found on flat to gently sloping topography of terraces, toeslopes, shallow headwater basins, swales, moats of bog mats, and pondshores. Some older stands typically occur over shallow bedrock, where they are kept open by high water tables. Some habitats typically have pronounced hummock-and-hollow microtopography. Groundwater discharge may be barely perceptible, or may appear as flowing seeps and braided streamlets. The underlying bedrock may consist of acidic sandstone, shale or limestone. The substrate is poorly to very poorly drained shallow peat or muck or sand.
Diagnostic Characteristics: This alliance contains acidic herbaceous fen or "bog" vegetation from the Allegheny Mountains region of Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland as well as related areas of New York and Pennsylvania. The criteria for distinguishing it from other alliances include floristic ones as well as biogeographic ones.
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: This alliance (A3373) contains both seepage and non-seepage acidic peat associations, some of which may better fit with Dulichium arundinaceum - Carex canescens Sub-boreal Acidic Graminoid Fen Alliance (A3452) in Eastern North American Sub-boreal Bog & Acidic Fen Group (G745).
Similar NVC Types:
Diphylleia cymosa - Saxifraga micranthidifolia Seep Alliance, note:
Carex atlantica - Solidago patula - Parnassia asarifolia Seep Alliance, note:
Carex gynandra - Glyceria melicaria - Glyceria striata Seep Alliance, note:
Lyonia ligustrina - Photinia pyrifolia / Drosera rotundifolia Seep Alliance, note:
Sanguisorba canadensis - Parnassia grandifolia Seep Alliance, note:
Physiognomy and Structure: This community type is predominantly herbaceous but contains patches of low shrubs and stunted trees. Herbaceous composition is somewhat variable, with a variety of graminoids and forbs present in the various associations. Mosses, including Sphagnum spp., may also be present.
Floristics: Typical components of this community type include Carex echinata, Carex folliculata, Dulichium arundinaceum, Eriophorum virginicum, Juncus brevicaudatus, Juncus canadensis, Juncus subcaudatus, and Solidago uliginosa. Other common herbs include Carex gynandra, Carex trisperma, Doellingeria umbellata (= Aster umbellatus), Drosera rotundifolia var. rotundifolia, Epilobium leptophyllum, Galium tinctorium, Juncus effusus, Osmunda cinnamomea, Scirpus cyperinus, Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum, and Viola cucullata. Sphagnum spp. (Sphagnum recurvum, Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum fallax, and others) may also be present. Patches of low shrubs and stunted trees are also present in some examples, particularly Picea rubens and Acer rubrum. Shrubs may include Menziesia pilosa, Kalmia latifolia, Vaccinium angustifolium, and Vaccinium myrtilloides. The dwarf-shrubs Vaccinium oxycoccos, Vaccinium macrocarpon, and Rubus hispidus may be present in some associations.
Dynamics: No Data Available
Environmental Description: This vegetation is found on flat to gently sloping topography of terraces, toeslopes, shallow headwater basins, swales, moats of bog mats, and pondshores. Some older stands typically occur over shallow bedrock, where they are kept open by high water tables. Some habitats typically have pronounced hummock-and-hollow microtopography. Groundwater discharge may be barely perceptible, or may appear as flowing seeps and braided streamlets. The underlying bedrock may consist of acidic sandstone, shale or limestone. The substrate is poorly to very poorly drained shallow peat or muck or sand.
Geographic Range: The range of this vegetation includes the Central Appalachians and Alleghany Plateau regions from West Virginia north to Pennsylvania. In New York, examples of this alliance are presumably in the High Alleghany Plateau.
Nations: US
States/Provinces: MD, NY, PA, VA, WV
US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Confidence Level: Moderate
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: GNR
Greasons:
Concept Lineage: Old alliance A.2624 was from "Washington, British Columbia and West Virginia." The three associations come from 3 different old alliances (A.1450 [1/4], A.1455 [1/9], A.2624 [1/2])
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy: ? Sinkhole wetland (Edinger et al. 2002)
Concept Author(s): M. Pyne, in Faber-Langendoen et al. (2013)
Author of Description: M. Pyne and D. Faber-Langendoen
Acknowledgements: We have incorporated significant descriptive information previously compiled by K.D. Patterson and A.S. Weakley.
Version Date: 18Dec2014
References:
  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., J. Drake, M. Hall, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, L. Sneddon, K. Snow, and J. Teague. 2013-2017b. Screening alliances for induction into the U.S. National Vegetation Classification: Part 1 - Alliance concept review. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.
  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]