Invalid Unit Specified
A2059 Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba - Quercus nigra Coastal Plain Forest Alliance

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence: These are mesic hardwood forests of slopes and small stream bottoms in the coastal plains of the southeastern United States dominated by Fagus grandifolia, Quercus alba, and Quercus nigra.
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: American Beech - White Oak - Water Oak Coastal Plain Forest Alliance
Colloquial Name: Mesic Southern Coastal Plain Deciduous Forest
Hierarchy Level: Alliance
Type Concept: This alliance includes southern mesic hardwood forests dominated by Fagus grandifolia and Quercus spp., particularly Quercus alba and Quercus nigra. Associations in this alliance include primarily mesic forests that typically occur on slopes and small stream bottoms in the coastal plains of the southeastern United States from Virginia to Texas. A diverse, often dense canopy is usually present, which may include Acer barbatum, Acer leucoderme, Carya cordiformis, Fraxinus americana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus michauxii, Quercus pagoda, and Ulmus spp. Widely variable understory and shrub layers are usually present. Although the herbaceous layer is typically sparse, it may contain a number of species which are restricted to these rich mesic habitats or nearly so. This alliance is primarily found north of the distribution of Magnolia grandiflora, which typically will not be present in stands.
Diagnostic Characteristics: These forests are generally south of the interior mesophytic forests of the Appalachian and Interior Plateau regions, and north of the range of Magnolia grandiflora. The combination of Fagus grandifolia with Quercus alba and Quercus nigra, lacking Magnolia grandiflora, is consistent with this concept.
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features: The combination of Fagus grandifolia, Quercus alba, and Quercus nigra, lacking Magnolia grandiflora, is consistent with the concept of mesic forests found generally south of the interior mesophytic forests of the Appalachian and Interior Plateau regions, and north of the range of Magnolia grandiflora.
Classification Comments: No Data Available
Similar NVC Types:
Fagus grandifolia - Magnolia grandiflora Forest Alliance, note:
Quercus alba - Quercus nigra - Sabal minor Forest Alliance, note:
Quercus alba - Carya alba Mesic Coastal Plain Forest Alliance, note: is mesic Coastal Plain oak-hickory forest.
Quercus shumardii - Quercus pagoda - Fraxinus americana Coastal Plain Forest Alliance, note: is rich mesic cherrybark oak-Shumard oak forest.
Acer barbatum - Quercus shumardii - Fraxinus americana Coastal Plain Forest Alliance, note: is southern mesic forest without beech-oak dominance.
Physiognomy and Structure: These are closed-canopy forests with dense and diverse shrub and herbaceous strata.
Floristics: Examples are dominated by Fagus grandifolia, Quercus alba, and Quercus nigra. A diverse, often dense canopy is usually present, which may include Acer barbatum, Acer leucoderme, Carya cordiformis, Fraxinus americana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus michauxii, Quercus pagoda, and Ulmus spp. Widely variable understory and shrub layers are usually present. Although the herbaceous layer is typically sparse, it may contain a number of species which are restricted to these rich mesic habitats or nearly so.
Dynamics: These are mesic forests of relatively fire-sheltered environments. Stands are vulnerable to the effects of canopy removal and subsequent soil erosion. Some examples are highly threatened by timber removal and development. Other threats include windthrow, microclimate modification from intensive silvicultural practices on adjacent uplands, herbicide use, and vegetation damage by feral hogs.
Environmental Description: Most associations in this alliance of the coastal plains of the southeastern United States are found in mesic uplands (slopes, ravines, etc.), but some occupy upper terraces of stream and river floodplains.
Geographic Range: This alliance is found in the coastal plains of the southeastern United States from Virginia to Texas, and north to Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. Two associations are attributed to the adjacent Piedmont.
Nations: US
States/Provinces: AL, AR, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA
US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)
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Confidence Level: Low
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Grank: GNR
Greasons:
Name:Database Code:Classification Code:
Class 1 Forest & Woodland C01 1
Subclass 1.B Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland S15 1.B
Formation 1.B.1 Warm Temperate Forest & Woodland F018 1.B.1
Division 1.B.1.Na Southeastern North American Forest & Woodland D006 1.B.1.Na
Macrogroup M008 Southern Mesic Mixed Broadleaf Forest M008 1.B.1.Na.3
Group G166 Southern Mesic Beech - Oak - Mixed Deciduous Forest G166 1.B.1.Na.3.b
Alliance A2059 Mesic Southern Coastal Plain Deciduous Forest A2059
Association CEGL007210 East Gulf Coastal Plain Rich Beech - White Oak Forest CEGL007210
Association CEGL007525 West Gulf Coastal Plain Mesic Loblolly Pine - Mixed Hardwood Forest CEGL007525
Association CEGL007845 South Atlantic Coastal Plain Oak Flatwoods Forest CEGL007845
Association CEGL007863 Atlantic Coastal Plain Mesic Beech Bluff Forest CEGL007863
Association CEGL007206 Atlantic Coastal Plain Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest CEGL007206
Association CEGL007866 South Atlantic Coastal Plain Beech Floodplain Forest CEGL007866
Association CEGL007321 Piedmont Beech Levee Forest CEGL007321
Association CEGL007208 West Gulf Coastal Plain Beech - White Oak Forest (Typic Type) CEGL007208
Association CEGL007211 Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Mesic Beech - Water Oak Forest CEGL007211
Association CEGL003859 East Gulf Coastal Plain Dry Beech - White Oak Forest CEGL003859
Association CEGL004745 East Gulf Coastal Plain Beech Floodplain Forest CEGL004745
Association CEGL007207 West Gulf Coastal Plain Beech - White Oak Forest (Subcalcareous Type) CEGL007207
Association CEGL004763 East Gulf Coastal Plain Loblolly Pine - White Oak Forest CEGL004763
Association CEGL004091 Pinus taeda - Quercus falcata - Quercus alba / Chasmanthium sessiliflorum - Piptochaetium avenaceum Forest CEGL004091
Association CEGL006493 Northern Coastal Plain Beech - Mixed Hardwood Floodplain Forest CEGL006493
Concept Lineage: This represents the larger portion of A.228 (8/9) which was combined with parts of A.238 (1/15), A.284 (4/8), and A.404 (2/8) to form the new alliance Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba - Quercus nigra Forest Alliance (A2059).
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Concept Author(s): M. Pyne, in Faber-Langendoen et al. (2013)
Author of Description: M. Pyne
Acknowledgements:
Version Date: 14Mar2014
References:
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., J. Drake, M. Hall, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, L. Sneddon, K. Snow, and J. Teague. 2013-2017b. Screening alliances for induction into the U.S. National Vegetation Classification: Part 1 - Alliance concept review. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.