Invalid Unit Specified
M048 Amelanchier alnifolia / Festuca idahoensis - Pseudoroegneria spicata Grassland & Shrubland Macrogroup

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence: This macrogroup occurs in the foothills and mountains throughout the Central Rockies, from central and eastern Wyoming north and west into British Columbia and Alberta and is composed of shrub- and/or herbaceous-dominated stands forming shrublands, shrub-steppe, or grasslands. Characteristic shrubs include Acer glabrum, Amelanchier alnifolia, Holodiscus discolor, Menziesia ferruginea, Physocarpus malvaceus, Symphoricarpos albus, Symphoricarpos occidentalis, and species of Prunus, Rhus, Ribes, Rosa, Rubus parviflorus, Spiraea, and Vaccinium. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Festuca idahoensis, Pseudoroegneria spicata, and other cool-season graminoids.
Collapse All::Expand All
Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Saskatoon Serviceberry / Idaho Fescue - Bluebunch Wheatgrass Grassland & Shrubland Macrogroup
Colloquial Name: Central Rocky Mountain Montane-Foothill Grassland & Shrubland
Hierarchy Level: Macrogroup
Type Concept: This macrogroup occurs in the foothills and mountains throughout the Central Rockies and montane Intermountain West region, from central and eastern Wyoming north and west into British Columbia and Alberta. This includes the "island ranges" of central Montana, though it is not common west to the East Cascades. It is broadly defined structurally and is composed of shrub- and/or herbaceous-dominated stands forming shrublands (>25% cover), shrub-steppe (10-25% cover), or open grasslands (shrubs <10% cover). Characteristic shrubs between 1 and 3 m in height are Acer glabrum, Amelanchier alnifolia, Holodiscus discolor, Menziesia ferruginea, Physocarpus malvaceus, Prunus emarginata, Prunus virginiana, Rhus glabra, Rhus trilobata, Ribes lacustre, Rosa nutkana, Rosa woodsii, Rubus parviflorus, Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea, Spiraea spp., and Symphoricarpos albus. Dwarf-shrubs (<0.3 m tall) composed of Vaccinium cespitosum, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium scoparium, and Vaccinium membranaceum may be also form the dominant and characteristic woody layer. Grasslands are dominated by Festuca idahoensis and Pseudoroegneria spicata, with Festuca campestris increasing northward in Alberta. Other characteristic herbaceous graminoids present include Achnatherum scribneri, Achnatherum hymenoides, Carex geyeri, Carex filifolia, Carex petasata, Danthonia spp., Elymus lanceolatus, Festuca campestris, Hesperostipa comata, Koeleria macrantha, Leucopoa kingii, Leymus cinereus, Pascopyrum smithii, and Poa secunda. Associated forbs are numerous and include species of Arnica, Antennaria, Erigeron, Eriogonum, Gaillardia, Galium, Geum, Heuchera, Liatris, Lithospermum, Lupinus, Lomatium, Oxytropis, Penstemon, Phlox, Potentilla, and Solidago. On dry, sites with low grazing pressure, Selaginella densa and lichens provide significant ground cover between clumps of grasses. Non-native grasses can also be abundant and include Phleum pratense, Bromus inermis, and Poa pratensis. The herbaceous layer of shrublands has similar species composition to many of the grasslands in this macrogroup, except for the mesic shrublands with typically more mesic species such as Heracleum maximum, Luzula glabrata, or some other species such as Chamerion angustifolium and Xerophyllum tenax. Alnus spp. may occur in avalanche slopes. Stands occur as extensive foothill and valley grasslands and shrublands below the lower treeline and extend up into the high montane zones. Climate is temperate with predominantly dry summers and cold winters. Annual precipitation is approximately 20-80 cm, and primarily occurs in the winter as snow or rain, with moisture increasing with elevation. These communities tend to occur on gentle to steep-gradient slopes. Sites are highly variable. Grasslands tend to occur on warmer, drier sites and drier micro-climates, especially at higher elevation. Shrublands and dwarf-shrublands often occur on cooler, more mesic sites than grasslands. These shrubland communities also develop near talus slopes as garlands, at the heads of dry drainages, toeslopes in the moist shrub-steppe and steppe zones, and as smaller patches on dry sites that are marginal for tree growth and that have typically also experienced fire. Some site may occupy avalanche areas. Parent materials include basalt colluvium, loess, lava and tuff, glacial outwash composed of fine silts and clays of moderate depth. Soils range from poorly developed, well-drained alluvial or colluvial sands with a high percentage of rock fragments to be moderately deep, silt loam or loam with few rock fragments (less than 15% by volume and no rock cover). This macrogroup also includes grasslands from eastern Washington and Oregon commonly known as Palouse Prairie, which is characterized by rolling topography composed of loess hills and plains over basalt plains.
Diagnostic Characteristics: This broadly defined macrogroup is characterized by a variety of species forming shrublands, shrub-steppe, or grasslands. Characteristic species include Acer glabrum, Amelanchier alnifolia, Holodiscus discolor, Menziesia ferruginea, Physocarpus malvaceus, Philadelphus lewisii, Prunus emarginata, Prunus virginiana, Rhus glabra, Rhus trilobata, Ribes lacustre, Rosa nutkana, Rosa woodsii, Rubus parviflorus, Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea, Spiraea betulifolia, Spiraea splendens, and Symphoricarpos albus. Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana and Cercocarpus montanus may also be present in the southern extent, but neither dominates. Evergreen dwarf-shrubs <0.5 m tall can also form the characteristic woody layer. Common species include Mahonia repens, Vaccinium cespitosum, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium scoparium, and Vaccinium membranaceum, occurring alone or in any combination. Grasslands, whose species are often shared with the shrubland types, are dominated by Festuca idahoensis and Pseudoroegneria spicata. Other characteristic graminoid species include Achnatherum occidentale, Achnatherum richardsonii, Calamagrostis rubescens, Danthonia intermedia, Danthonia parryi, Elymus lanceolatus, Elymus trachycaulus, Festuca campestris, Hesperostipa comata, Koeleria macrantha, Leucopoa kingii, Leymus cinereus, Leymus innovatus, Pascopyrum smithii, Phleum alpinum, Poa secunda, Trisetum spicatum and a variety of Carices, such as Carex hoodii, Carex elynoides, Carex filifolia, Carex geyeri, Carex obtusata, and Carex scirpoidea. Chamerion angustifolium, Heracleum maximum, Luzula glabrata, and Xerophyllum tenax are characteristic of some herbaceous layer in mesic shrubland. Associated forb species are diverse and may include Achillea millefolium, Arnica sororia, Antennaria microphylla, Artemisia ludoviciana, Artemisia frigida, Balsamorhiza sagittata, Delphinium bicolor, Erigeron spp., Eriogonum spp., Gaillardia aristata, Galium boreale, Geum triflorum, Heuchera spp., Liatris punctata, Lithospermum ruderale, Lupinus argenteus, Lupinus sericeus, Lomatium macrocarpum, Opuntia fragilis, Oxytropis spp., Penstemon confertus, Penstemon eriantherus, Phlox alyssifolia, Phlox hoodii, Potentilla glandulosa, Potentilla gracilis, and Solidago missouriensis.
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features: Shrublands often contain the cold-deciduous species Amelanchier alnifolia, which is predominantly a northern taxon, although it extends further south to Utah and Colorado. Diagnostic graminoids are Festuca idahoensis, one of the dominant grasses in the montane and subalpine grasslands, and Pseudoroegneria spicata which often dominates foothill stands. Festuca campestris is also fairly diagnostic of the type but is more localized, so is not used in the name.
Classification Comments: This macrogroup has been recently modified. Former Columbia Basin Foothill & Canyon Dry Grassland Group (G274) was archived and its contents moved to Intermountain Semi-Desert Grassland Group (G311) in Great Basin-Intermountain Dry Shrubland & Grassland Macrogroup (M171). Former Central Rocky Mountain Montane-Foothill Mesic Deciduous Shrubland Group (G275) was also archived and the Celtis laevigata var. reticulata- and Crataegus douglasii-dominated or -codominated associations were deemed to be mostly riparian and were moved to Western Montane-Subalpine Riparian & Seep Shrubland Group (G527). The other associations were moved to Central Rocky Mountain-North Pacific High Montane Mesic Shrubland Group (G305) in the same macrogroup. The draft alliances will need to be reviewed and possibly moved.
Similar NVC Types:
M171 Great Basin-Intermountain Dry Shrubland & Grassland, note: "is a similar western macrogroup that includes lower elevation, drier grasslands and shrublands. There is some species overlap in foothill zone."
M168 Rocky Mountain-Vancouverian Subalpine-High Montane Mesic Meadow, note:
Physiognomy and Structure: This variable macrogroup is composed of shrub and/or herbaceous stands forming a shrubland, shrub-steppe, or grassland. Shrub layers are typically composed of broad-leaved, cold-deciduous species generally between 1 and 3 m in height. However, dwarf-shrubs <0.3m tall such as Vaccinium spp. can be also form the characteristic woody layer. Shrub density will vary with substrate, fire and grazing history, and moisture, but these are rarely dense "thickets." They are typically found in small patches within the lower montane zone of Douglas-fir or ponderosa pine woodlands, or in a mosaic with sage shrub-steppe or valley grasslands. Grasses and forbs are the herbaceous component and can be abundant to sparse. The herbaceous layer is dominated by cool-season bunchgrasses, generally less than 1 m in height, and often dense in cover. Forb diversity is typically high in both mesic and dry aspects of this macrogroup. Shrubs are more common on slightly more mesic or protected sites (north slopes, toeslopes, swales). A soil crust of lichens covers almost all open soil between clumps of grasses; Cladonia and Peltigera species are the most common lichens. Unvegetated mineral soil is commonly found between clumps of grass and the lichen cover.
Floristics: This macrogroup is broadly defined and is composed of shrub- and/or herbaceous-dominated stands forming a shrubland, shrub-steppe, or grassland. If present, the shrub layer is typically composed of broad-leaved, cold-deciduous species generally between 1 and 3 m in height and dominated by one species or a mix of shrubs such as Acer glabrum, Amelanchier alnifolia, Holodiscus discolor, Menziesia ferruginea, Physocarpus malvaceus, Prunus emarginata, Prunus virginiana, Rhus glabra, Rhus trilobata, Ribes lacustre, Rosa nutkana, Rosa woodsii, Rubus parviflorus, Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea (= Sambucus caerulea), Spiraea betulifolia, Spiraea splendens, and Symphoricarpos albus. Occurrences in central and eastern Wyoming can include Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana and Cercocarpus montanus, but neither of these is dominant, and where they occur, the stands are truly mixes of shrubs. Evergreen low and dwarf-shrubs (<0.5 m tall) can also form the characteristic woody layer. Common species include Mahonia repens, Vaccinium cespitosum, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium scoparium, and Vaccinium membranaceum, occurring alone or in any combination. Juniperus communis shrublands are found at high elevations in the eastern Cascades and are tentatively included here. Other common woody plants include Paxistima myrsinites, Sorbus scopulina, and Sorbus sitchensis.

The herbaceous layer is variable, ranging from foothill to subalpine grasslands, as well as the understory of shrublands included in this macrogroup. The herbaceous layer of shrublands varies in cover depending on shrub density; the species composition is similar to many of the grasslands in this macrogroup, except for the mesic shrublands with typically more mesic species such as Heracleum maximum, Luzula glabrata, or some other species such as Chamerion angustifolium and Xerophyllum tenax.

Throughout much of the macrogroup, Festuca idahoensis and Pseudoroegneria spicata are the most important grasses and are usually present and often dominant. In the northern extent on moist sites with low grazing pressures, Festuca campestris can form a nearly continuous cover and is interspersed with Festuca idahoensis and the rhizomatous ecotype of Pseudoroegneria spicata. Danthonia parryi becomes codominant moving north into the Alberta foothills. Other graminoids include Achnatherum occidentale, Achnatherum richardsonii, Elymus lanceolatus, Hesperostipa comata, Koeleria macrantha, Leymus cinereus, Pascopyrum smithii, and Poa secunda. Moister sites support a forb-rich community that includes species such as Achillea millefolium, Balsamorhiza sagittata, Castilleja spp., Delphinium bicolor, Fragaria virginiana, Gentiana affinis, Geranium viscosissimum, Lomatium triternatum, Lupinus sericeus, Oxytropis spp., Penstemon confertus, Potentilla glandulosa, and Potentilla gracilis.

On drier sites Festuca idahoensis and the bunchgrass ecotype of Pseudoroegneria spicata dominate with forbs such as Achillea millefolium, Arnica sororia, Antennaria microphylla, Artemisia ludoviciana, Artemisia frigida, Erigeron spp., Eriogonum spp., Gaillardia aristata, Galium boreale, Geum triflorum, Heuchera spp., Liatris punctata, Lithospermum ruderale, Lupinus argenteus, Lupinus sericeus, Lomatium macrocarpum, Penstemon eriantherus, Phlox alyssifolia, Phlox hoodii, Potentilla gracilis, Opuntia fragilis, Oxytropis spp., Pulsatilla patens, and Solidago missouriensis. Other graminoids present within this drier community include Achnatherum scribneri, Achnatherum hymenoides, Carex geyeri, Carex filifolia, Carex petasata, Danthonia intermedia, Koeleria macrantha, and Poa secunda. On dry sites with low grazing pressures, Selaginella densa and a soil crust of lichens cover almost all open soil between clumps of grasses. Cladonia and Peltigera spp. are the most common lichens present. Important introduced grasses include Phleum pratense, Bromus inermis, and Poa pratensis.

Higher elevation montane grasslands are also typically dominated by Festuca idahoensis and Pseudoroegneria spicata. Other typical include species include Achnatherum occidentale, Achnatherum richardsonii, Calamagrostis rubescens, Danthonia intermedia, Elymus trachycaulus, Leucopoa kingii, Leymus innovatus (= Elymus innovatus), Phleum alpinum, Trisetum spicatum, a variety of Carices, such as Carex hoodii, Carex elynoides, Carex filifolia, Carex geyeri, Carex obtusata, and Carex scirpoidea. Important forbs are Eriogonum spp., Fragaria virginiana, Geranium viscosissimum, Lupinus argenteus var. laxiflorus, Lupinus sericeus, Oxytropis campestris, Phlox pulvinata, Potentilla diversifolia, and Potentilla flabellifolia.

Shrub species may be scattered or patchy, including Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia tridentata, Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Juniperus communis, Rosa arkansana, Rosa nutkana, Rosa woodsii, Symphoricarpos spp., and in Wyoming Artemisia tripartita ssp. rupicola. Several species of Eriogonum are also common. Amelanchier alnifolia, Crataegus douglasii, and Prunus virginiana often occur as patches on north-facing slopes of foothills where snow persists longer into the growing season. Salix bebbiana copses form a unique shrubland area in Alberta. Alnus spp. may occur on avalanche slopes.
Dynamics: The natural fire regime of this macrogroup is variable. The grasslands tend to have a fire regime with rapid fire return that slows or sets back shrub invasion and maintains a low or patchy shrub distribution. Fire frequency is presumed to be less than 20 years. These are extensive grasslands, though they are similar to grass-dominated patches within the sagebrush shrublands of ~Great Basin-Intermountain Tall Sagebrush Steppe & Shrubland Macrogroup (M169)$$. Shrubs, and even trees, including Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii, may increase following heavy grazing and/or with fire suppression. Shrublands included in this macrogroup have a fire regime with a longer fire-return interval or fire-adapted shrubs such as Physocarpus malvaceus that vigorously sprout after burning and may competitively exclude Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings (Johnson and Simon 1987).

On grassy sites, summer overgrazing for two to three years can result in the loss of Festuca campestris, which is very grazing-sensitive. Long-term heavy grazing on moister sites can result in a shift to a Poa pratensis - Phleum pratense type. Pseudoroegneria spicata shows an inconsistent reaction to grazing, increasing on some grazed sites while decreasing on others. It seems to recover more quickly from overgrazing than Festuca campestris, tolerates dormant-period grazing well but is sensitive to defoliation during the growing season. Reaction of Festuca idahoensis to grazing needs to be documented. Light spring use or fall grazing can help retain plant vigor. Exotic species threatening this macrogroup through invasion and potential complete replacement of native species include Bromus arvensis, Euphorbia esula, Phleum pratense, Potentilla recta, and all manner of knapweed, especially Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos. In the Palouse Prairie, excessive grazing, past land use and invasion by introduced annual species have resulted in a massive conversion to agriculture or shrub-steppe and annual grasslands dominated by Artemisia spp. and Bromus tectorum or Poa pratensis. Remnant grasslands are now typically associated with steep and rocky sites or small and isolated sites within an agricultural landscape.
Environmental Description: The grasslands, shrub-steppe, shrubland and dwarf-shrublands included in this macrogroup are found in the central Rocky Mountains and Intermountain West regions. They have a broad elevational range and occur as extensive foothill and valley grasslands and shrublands below the lower treeline and on drier sites, particularly south-facing slopes or ridgetops. They are also found at montane elevations along the mountain flanks and large intermountain valleys up into the subalpine zone to near upper treeline, ranging from small meadows to large open parks surrounded by conifers. Depending on latitude, the lower elevation stands occur from 300 to 1650 m (990-5410 feet) and the upper montane to subalpine grassland and shrubland range from 600 to 2011 m (2000-7500 feet) in northern Montana and southwestern Alberta, and up to 2286 to 2682 m (7500-8800 feet) in the mountains of southwestern Montana and Wyoming. These communities occur on gentle to steep-gradient slopes. Sites are highly variable. Grasslands tend to occur on warmer, drier sites, especially at higher elevation. Shrublands and dwarf-shrublands often occur on cooler, more mesic sites than grasslands. The high-elevation stands typically have plentiful snow, along with wind desiccation, in the subalpine-alpine transition. Fire, flooding and erosion all impact the shrubland communities, but they typically will persist on sites for long periods. Avalanches slopes may also occur. These shrubland communities also develop near talus slopes as garlands, at the heads of dry drainages, toeslopes in the moist shrub-steppe and steppe zones, and as smaller patches on dry sites that are marginal for tree growth and that have typically also experienced fire. This macrogroup also includes grasslands from eastern Washington and Oregon commonly known as Palouse Prairie, which is characterized by rolling topography composed of loess hills and plains over basalt plains.

Climate: This vegetation reflects a shift in the precipitation regime from summer rain and cold snowy winters found in the Southern Rockies to predominantly dry summers and winter precipitation found in the Central Rockies. Summers are short and winters are cold. Annual precipitation is approximately 20-800 cm, and primarily occurs in the winter as snow or rain. Moisture is stored in the soil and utilized during the dry summers. In the eastern portion of its range in Montana, winter precipitation is replaced by a huge spring peak in precipitation. In the Palouse region the climate has warm-hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Annual precipitation is high, 38-76 cm (15-30 inches).

Soil/substrate/hydrology: Parent materials include basalt colluvium, loess, lava and tuff, glacial outwash or till, composed of fine silts and clays of moderate depth. Soils are poorly developed, well-drained alluvial or colluvial sands that often have a high percentage of rock fragments; or they may be moderately deep, silt loam or loam with few rock fragments (less than 15% by volume and no rock cover). Some of these sites are occasionally scoured by flash floods or high runoff events. The Palouse Prairie region is characterized by rolling topography composed of loess hills and plains over basalt plains. The soils are typically deep, well-developed, and old. Outside of the Palouse Prairie region, these grasslands occur on young soils derived from recent glacial and alluvial material. Soils are relatively deep, fine-textured, often with coarse fragments, and non-saline, often with a microphytic crust.
Geographic Range: This macrogroup occurs in the foothills and mountains throughout the Central Rockies and montane Intermountain West regions, from central and eastern Wyoming north and west into British Columbia and Alberta. This includes the "island ranges" of central Montana, though it is not common. It also occurs in the East Cascades, but how far south into the Sierra Nevada is as yet unclear.
Nations: CA, US
States/Provinces: AB, BC, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
US Forest Service Ecoregions (2007)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Yellowstone Highlands Section
Section Code: M331A     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Plot Analysis Summary:
Confidence Level: Low
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: GNR
Greasons:
Concept Lineage: This macrogroup is composed of four groups: ~Central Rocky Mountain Montane-Foothill Dry Deciduous Shrubland Group (G272)$$, ~Central Rocky Mountain Montane Grassland Group (G267)$$, ~Central Rocky Mountain High Montane Mesic Shrubland Group (G305)$$, and ~Central Rocky Mountain Lower Montane, Foothill & Valley Grassland Group (G273)$$. Originally, ~Columbia Basin Foothill & Canyon Dry Grassland Group (G274)$$ was included; however, it was archived and its contents moved to ~Intermountain Semi-Desert Grassland Group (G311)$$ in ~Great Basin & Intermountain Dry Shrubland & Grassland Macrogroup (M171)$$.
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Amelanchier alnifolia / Festuca idahoensis - Pseudoroegneria spicata Central Rocky Mountain Montane-Foothill Grassland & Shrubland Macrogroup
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy: >< Bittercherry (419) (Shiflet 1994)
>< Bluebunch Wheatgrass (101) (Shiflet 1994)
> Bluebunch Wheatgrass - Blue Grama (301) (Shiflet 1994) [Several SRM range types of northern Rocky Mountains correspond to this group.]
> Bluebunch Wheatgrass - Sandberg Bluegrass (302) (Shiflet 1994) [Several SRM range types of northern Rocky Mountains correspond to this group.]
> Bluebunch Wheatgrass - Western Wheatgrass (303) (Shiflet 1994) [Several SRM range types of northern Rocky Mountains correspond to this group.]
>< Chokecherry - Serviceberry - Rose (421) (Shiflet 1994)
>< Fescue Grassland (613) (Shiflet 1994) [Festuca campestris grasslands are important components of this group.]
>< Idaho Fescue (102) (Shiflet 1994)
< Idaho Fescue - Bluebunch Wheatgrass (304) (Shiflet 1994)
>< Idaho Fescue - Richardson Needlegrass (305) (Shiflet 1994) [This SRM type is described as occurring at "medium to high elevations", which suggests it primarily crosswalks to this group.]
> Idaho Fescue - Slender Wheatgrass (306) (Shiflet 1994)
> Idaho Fescue - Threadleaf Sedge (307) (Shiflet 1994)
> Idaho Fescue - Tufted Hairgrass (308) (Shiflet 1994)
> Idaho Fescue - Western Wheatgrass (309) (Shiflet 1994)
< MS Montane Shrub/Grassland Dry Subdivision sites (Ecosystems Working Group 1998)
> Needle-and-thread - Blue Grama (310) (Shiflet 1994)
> Rough Fescue - Bluebunch Wheatgrass (311) (Shiflet 1994)
>< Rough Fescue - Idaho Fescue (312) (Shiflet 1994)
>< Shrubby Cinquefoil - Rough Fescue (323) (Shiflet 1994)
>< Tufted Hairgrass - Sedge (313) (Shiflet 1994) [Drier portions of this SRM type overlap with this group.]
>< no data (BGxh3/01) (Steen and Coupé 1997)
>< no data (BGxw2/01) (Steen and Coupé 1997)
Concept Author(s): K.A. Schulz, in Faber-Langendoen et al. (2014)
Author of Description: K.A. Schulz and M.S. Reid
Acknowledgements: Todd Keeler-Wolf and Julie Evens for review of draft macrogroup.
Version Date: 29Mar2017
References:
  • Achuff, P. L., R. L. McNeil, and M. L. Coleman. 1997. Chapter III-Vegetation. Pages 28-93 in: P. L. Achuff, R. L. McNeil, and M. L. Coleman. Ecological land classification of Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. Parks Canada, Waterton Lakes National Park. 250 pp. plus maps.
  • Butler, D. R. 1979. Snow avalanche path terrain and vegetation, Glacier National Park, Montana. Arctic and Alpine Research 11:17-32.
  • Butler, D. R. 1985. Vegetation and geomorphic change on snow avalanche paths, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Great Basin Naturalist 45(2):313-317.
  • Cooper, S. V., P. Lesica, R. L. DeVelice, and T. McGarvey. 1995. Classification of southwestern Montana plant communities with emphasis on those of Dillon Resource Area, Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 154 pp.
  • Daubenmire, R. 1988. Steppe vegetation of Washington. Washington State University Cooperative Extension Service Publication EB1446. (Revised from and replaces Washington Agricultural Experiment Station Publication XT0062.) 131 pp.
  • Daubenmire, R. F. 1970. Steppe vegetation of Washington. Washington State University Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 62. 131 pp.
  • Ecosystems Working Group. 1998. Standards for broad terrestrial ecosystem classification and mapping for British Columbia. Prepared by the Ecosystems Working Group, Terrestrial Ecosystem Task Force, Resources Inventory Committee, for the Province of British Columbia. 174 pp. plus appendices. [http://srmwww.gov.bc.ca/risc/pubs/teecolo/tem/indextem.htm]
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., J. Drake, S. Gawler, M. Hall, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, L. Sneddon, K. Schulz, J. Teague, M. Russo, K. Snow, and P. Comer, editors. 2010-2019a. Divisions, Macrogroups and Groups for the Revised U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. plus appendices. [in preparation]
  • FEIS [Fire Effects Information System]. 2000. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. [http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/]
  • Franklin, J. F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. General Technical Report PNW-8. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 417 pp.
  • Hall, F. C. 1973. Plant communities of the Blue Mountains in eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. R6 Area Guide 3-1. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 62 pp.
  • Jankovsky-Jones, M., C. J. Murphy, and C. L. Coulter. 2001. Riparian and wetland plant associations of southwestern Idaho in the Lower Snake River District, Bureau of Land Management. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise.
  • Johnson, C. G. 2004. Alpine and subalpine vegetation of the Wallowa, Seven Devils and Blue mountains. R6-NR-ECOL-TP-0304. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 612 pp. plus appendices.
  • Johnson, C. G., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1992. Plant associations of the Blue and Ochoco mountains. R6-ERW-TP-036-92. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. 163 pp. plus appendices.
  • Johnson, C. G., and S. A. Simon. 1985. Plant associations of the Wallowa Valley Ranger District, Part II: Steppe. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. 258 pp.
  • Johnson, C. G., Jr., and S. A. Simon. 1987. Plant associations of the Wallowa-Snake Province Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. Technical Paper R6-ECOL-TP-255A-86. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. 399 pp. plus appendices.
  • Knight, D. H. 1994. Mountains and plains: Ecology of Wyoming landscapes. Yale University Press, New Haven, MA. 338 pp.
  • Kovalchik, B. L. 1987. Riparian zone associations - Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema national forests. Technical Paper 279-87. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 171 pp.
  • Lea, E. C., T. Vold, and R. Williams. 1985. Dewdrop-Tranquille River wildlife habitat study. Volume 2: Biophysical inventory. Technical Report. 14. British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Wildlife Branch, Victoria, BC.
  • Lloyd, D. A., K. Angove, G. Hope, and C. Thompson. 1990. A guide for site identification and interpretation of the Kamloops Forest Region. 2 volumes. Land Management Handbook No. 23. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC. [http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/lmh/lmh23.htm]
  • Malanson, G. P., and D. R. Butler. 1984. Transverse pattern vegetation on avalanche paths in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana. Great Basin Naturalist 44(3):453-458.
  • McLean, A. 1969. Plant communities of the Similkameen Valley, British Columbia, and their relationships to soils. Ph.D. thesis, Washington State University, Pullman. University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI. 133 pp.
  • Mueggler, W. F., and W. L. Stewart. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat types of western Montana. General Technical Report INT-66. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 154 pp.
  • Natural Regions Committee. 2006. Natural regions and subregions of Alberta. Compiled by D. J. Downing and W. W. Pettapiece. Publication No. T/852. Government of Alberta.
  • Nicholson, A. C., A. McLean, and T. E. Baker, editors. 1983. Grassland ecology and and classification. Symposium proceedings. 2-4 June 1982, Kamloops, BC. R28-82060. Province of British Columbia, Information Services Branch, Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC.
  • Nicholson, A., E. Hamilton, W. L. Harper, and B. M. Wikeem. 1991. Bunchgrass zone. Pages 125-137 in: D. Meidinger and J. Pojar, compilers. Ecosystems of British Columbia. British Columbia Ministry of Forests Special Report Series No. 6. Victoria, BC.
  • Poulton, C. E. 1955. Ecology of the non-forested vegetation in Umatilla and Morrow counties, Oregon. Unpublished dissertation. State College of Washington, Pullman. 166 pp.
  • Shiflet, T. N., editor. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Society for Range Management. Denver, CO. 152 pp.
  • Steen, O. A., and R. A. Coupé. 1997. A field guide to forest site identification and interpretation for the Cariboo Forest Region. Land Management Handbook No. 39. Parts 1 and 2. British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program, Victoria, BC.
  • Tisdale, E. M., and M. Bramble-Brodahl. 1983. Relationships of site characteristics to vegetation in canyon grasslands of west-central Idaho and adjacent areas. Journal of Range Management 36:775-778.
  • Tisdale, E. W. 1947. The grasslands of the southern interior of British Columbia. Ecology 28(4):346-382.
  • Tisdale, E. W. 1982. Grasslands of western North America: The Pacific Northwest bunchgrass. Pages 223-245 in: A. C. Nicholson, A. Mclean, and T. E. Baker, editors. Grassland Ecology and Classification Symposium, Kamloops, BC.
  • Tisdale, E. W. 1986. Canyon grasslands and associated shrublands of west-central Idaho and adjacent areas. Bulletin No. 40. Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow. 42 pp.
  • van Ryswyk, A. L., A. McLean, and L. S. Marchand. 1966. The climate, native vegetation, and soils of some grasslands at different elevations in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 46:35-50.