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Macrogroup Detail Report: M305
Liquidambar styraciflua - Pinus taeda - Triadica sebifera Ruderal Forest Macrogroup

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
This is ruderal vegetation that occurs in human-disturbed sites across the southeastern United States. Stands have canopies dominated by ruderal or exotic tree species.
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Translated Name:Sweetgum - Loblolly Pine - Chinese Tallow Ruderal Forest Macrogroup
Colloquial Name:Southeastern North American Ruderal Forest
This ruderal vegetation occurs in human-disturbed sites across the southeastern United States. This includes sites that were formerly cultivated ("old fields") as well as other areas where either the soil has been disturbed (primary succession) or where repeated removal of the natural forest cover for wood products has created conditions for a mixture of tree species which would be unlikely to occur under purely natural conditions of plant succession. The pathway to ruderal forest may be favored by a lack of fire which would favor fire-intolerant and exotic species. Some typical ruderal species include the evergreens Pinus clausa, Pinus elliottii, and Pinus taeda as well as the deciduous trees Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Catalpa bignonioides, Catalpa speciosa, Celtis laevigata, Liquidambar styraciflua, Maclura pomifera, Quercus hemisphaerica, Quercus nigra, and the exotics Albizia julibrissin, Broussonetia papyrifera, Quercus acutissima, and Triadica sebifera (= Sapium sebiferum). Maclura pomifera is native to a narrow region of the south-central U.S., but is so widely planted outside of this range that it is effectively exotic. These species may form monodominant stands or variable mixes, and typically have associated understory shrub and herb species that are also exotic or native generalists. Where the ground layer is native and the ruderal species listed above is native, the stand may be better placed into a successional phase of a native type.
Stands are dominated by some combination of weedy natives, including the evergreen Pinus taeda and the hardwoods Catalpa bignonioides, Catalpa speciosa, Liquidambar styraciflua, Maclura pomifera, Quercus nigra, and the exotics Albizia julibrissin, Broussonetia papyrifera, and Triadica sebifera.
Widespread ruderal weedy natives and a naturalized exotic were chosen as the nominal species characteristic of this vegetation.
Vegetation Hierarchy
Name:Database Code:Classification Code:
Class 1 Forest & Woodland C01 1
Subclass 1.B Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland S15 1.B
Formation 1.B.1 Warm Temperate Forest & Woodland F018 1.B.1
Division 1.B.1.Na Southeastern North American Forest & Woodland D006 1.B.1.Na
Macrogroup M305 Southeastern North American Ruderal Forest M305 1.B.1.Na.90
Group G029 Southeastern Exotic Ruderal Forest G029 1.B.1.Na.90.b
Group G031 Southeastern Native Ruderal Forest G031 1.B.1.Na.90.a
This vegetation is somewhat separated from Eastern North American Native Ruderal Forest Group (G030) by the absence of ruderal species of generally northern distribution, such as Betula populifolia, Gleditsia triacanthos, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Populus tremuloides, Prunus pensylvanica, and Robinia pseudoacacia.
Synonomy:

Related Type Name:Eastern North American Native Ruderal Forest Group (G030) in Eastern North American Ruderal Forest Macrogroup (M013) is dominated by ruderal species of generally northern distribution, such as Betula populifolia, Gleditsia triacanthos, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Populus tremuloides, Prunus pensylvanica, and Robinia pseudoacacia.

Short Citation:
  • Faber-Langendoen and Menard 2006
  • Faber-Langendoen et al. 2017a
  • Oosting 1942
States/Provinces:AL, FL, GA, KY?, LA, MO?, MS, NC, SC, TN?, TX, VA?
Nations:US
Range:This ruderal forest vegetation occurs across the southeastern United States in all physiographic regions.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
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No Data Available
Stands have canopies dominated (>80% cover) by ruderal or exotic tree species. The understory shrub and herb species are also exotic or native generalists. Examples may contain, or be dominated by, a variety of native and exotic trees and shrubs. The typical ruderal native species include the evergreen needle-leafed trees Pinus clausa, Pinus echinata, Pinus elliottii, Pinus palustris, and Pinus taeda as well as the deciduous trees Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Catalpa bignonioides, Catalpa speciosa, Celtis laevigata, Crataegus flava, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera (less commonly to the south), Quercus alba, Quercus falcata, Quercus hemisphaerica, Quercus incana, Quercus laevis, Quercus nigra, Quercus phellos, Quercus stellata, as well as the exotics Albizia julibrissin, Broussonetia papyrifera, Quercus acutissima, and Triadica sebifera (= Sapium sebiferum). Although Maclura pomifera is native to a narrow region of the south-central U.S., but it is so widely planted outside of this range that it is effectively exotic. Native shrubs may include Morella cerifera, Rhus copallinum, Vaccinium elliottii, and Vaccinium stamineum. The stands typically have associated shrub and herb layers that contain generalist native or exotic species. Where the ground layer is native and the ruderal species listed above are native, the stand may be able to fit into a successional phase of a native type.
The sites where this vegetation occurs have experienced heavy former human use, including farming, pasture establishment and grazing, mining, repeated logging, etc. These sites may have been formerly cleared and/or planted, and the subsequent and current disturbance may be minimal to continuous. These sites have been allowed to succeed more-or-less spontaneously to dominance (>80% cover) by ruderal or exotic tree species.
High
This vegetation results from heavy former human use, including farming, pasture establishment and grazing, mining, repeated logging, etc. It occurs on formerly cleared and/or planted sites, and the subsequent and current disturbance may be minimal to continuous. The pathway to ruderal forest may be favored by a lack of fire which would favor fire-intolerant and exotic species.
Authors:
M. Pyne      Version Date: 15Oct2014


References:
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., and S. Menard. 2006. A key to eastern forests of the United States: Macrogroups, groups, and alliances. September 15, 2006. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., J. Drake, S. Gawler, M. Hall, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, L. Sneddon, K. Schulz, J. Teague, M. Russo, K. Snow, and P. Comer, editors. 2010-2017a. Divisions, Macrogroups and Groups for the Revised U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. plus appendices. [in preparation]
  • Oosting, H. J. 1942. An ecological analysis of the plant communities of Piedmont, North Carolina. The American Midland Naturalist 28:1-127.


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

Date Accessed:

To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

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About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Macrogroup level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

U.S. Government
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Department of the Interior (USDI)
  • Forest Service (FS) - Chair
  • National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS)
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)
  • U.S. Navy (NAVY)
  • Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
  • National Park Service (NPS)
  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Non U.S. Government
  • NatureServe (NS)
  • Ecological Society of America (ESA)

Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)
We have incorporated significant descriptive information previously compiled by S. Menard and D. Faber-Langendoen.