Invalid Unit Specified
D029 Chamaedaphne calyculata / Carex oligosperma - Sphagnum spp. Bog & Fen Division

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence: This division includes open and treed bogs and fens throughout much of North America from the boreal zone in Canada south to northern California, montane areas in the western United States, the northern Great Plains, and much of the midwestern and northeastern United States and southeastern Canada.
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Leatherleaf / Few-seed Sedge - Peatmoss species Bog & Fen Division
Colloquial Name: North American Bog & Fen
Hierarchy Level: Division
Type Concept: This division includes open and treed bogs and fens throughout much of North America from the boreal zone in Canada south to northern California, montane areas in the western United States, the northern Great Plains, and much of the northeastern United States. Bogs and fens are dominated by shrubs or herbaceous vegetation. In the boreal, montane, and northern temperate areas, vegetation is often low with stunted or short trees, dwarf-shrubs and graminoids dominant. Dominant species vary greatly across the geographic range and differences in water chemistry/minerotrophy. Acidic stands typically usually contain dwarf-shrubs such as Andromeda polifolia, Betula nana, Chamaedaphne calyculata, Empetrum nigrum, Kalmia polifolia, Ledum groenlandicum, and Vaccinium spp. A diverse group of sedges may be present. Common sedges include Carex aquatilis, Carex oligosperma, Carex chordorrhiza, Carex limosa, Carex livida, Carex lasiocarpa, Carex magellanica ssp. irrigua, Carex pauciflora, and Carex pluriflora. Other herbs include Eriophorum vaginatum, Eriophorum virginicum, Drosera rotundifolia, Menyanthes trifoliata, Sarracenia purpurea, and Scheuchzeria palustris. The most common stunted trees include Picea mariana, Larix laricina, and Pinus contorta var. contorta. Species more likely to be found in circumneutral to alkaline wetlands include short or tall shrubs such as Alnus serrulata, Betula spp., Cornus amomum, Cornus sericea, Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Myrica gale, Salix spp., and herbaceous species such as Carex interior, Carex lurida, Carex leptalea, Carex sterilis, Comarum palustre, Dulichium arundinaceum, Lobelia kalmii, Spartina pectinata, and Symplocarpus foetidus. Sphagnum spp., liverworts, and brown mosses are very common or abundant in many sites. Common short trees include Larix laricina, and southward, Thuja occidentalis. Soils are organic peat, muck, or marl and saturated throughout most or all of the growing season. Water chemistry and nutrient levels are important in maintaining the character of these wetlands. The pH can vary from acidic to basic, and mineral input varies from very poor in ombrotrophic bogs to rich in some fens. Water source can be limited to only precipitation (true bogs) to mineral-rich groundwater flow, precipitation, and overland runoff. In boreal and sub-boreal settings, bogs and fens can be very extensive, occupying many hectares in relatively shallow basins. Throughout the range of this division, stands can be of more limited size in smaller depressions, along the edges of streams or lakes, or where groundwater seeps or springs reach the surface.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Depth of peat accumulation (>40 cm) is a typical distinguishing abiotic characteristic of this division. Richer sites may contain mucky or marl soils. Vegetation is dominated by shrubs, and often with a strong bryophyte component. Acidic stands typically usually contain dwarf-shrubs such as Andromeda polifolia, Betula nana, Chamaedaphne calyculata, Empetrum nigrum, Kalmia polifolia, Ledum groenlandicum, and Vaccinium spp. A diverse group of sedges may be present. Common sedges include Carex aquatilis, Carex oligosperma, Carex chordorrhiza, Carex limosa, Carex livida, Carex lasiocarpa, Carex magellanica ssp. irrigua, Carex pauciflora, and Carex pluriflora. Other herbs include Eriophorum vaginatum, Eriophorum virginicum, Drosera rotundifolia, Menyanthes trifoliata, Sarracenia purpurea, and Scheuchzeria palustris. The most common stunted trees include Picea mariana, Larix laricina and Pinus contorta var. contorta. Species more likely to be found in circumneutral to alkaline wetlands include short or tall shrubs such as Alnus serrulata, Betula spp., Cornus amomum, Cornus sericea, Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Myrica gale, and herbaceous species such as Carex interior, Carex lurida, Carex leptalea, Carex sterilis, Comarum palustre, Dulichium arundinaceum, Sphagnum spp., liverworts, and brown mosses are very common or abundant in many sites. Common short trees include Larix laricina, and southward, Thuja occidentalis. Diagnostic bryophyte species need to be added.
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: Depth of peat accumulation (>40 cm) is a typical distinguishing abiotic characteristic of this division. This does not apply to all sites in the Midwest and East, particularly sites with no peat (e.g., marly soils) but may help define sites with peat accumulation. Ozark and Interior Low Plateau fens are not treated here; rather they are placed in Eastern North American Cool Temperate Seep Macrogroup (M061), Central Interior Seepage Fen Group (G182). Better characterization of the sphagnum species is needed.
Similar NVC Types:
D016 North American Boreal Flooded & Swamp Forest, note: is dominated by trees rather than shrub/herbaceous vegetation.
D031 Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland, note: occurs on mineral soils or shallow organic soils.
D193 Vancouverian Flooded & Swamp Forest, note:
D322 Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland, note:
D323 Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland, note: "Ozark fens are treated in this division, in ~Eastern North American Cool Temperate Seep Macrogroup (M061)$$, ~Central Interior Seepage Fen Group (G182)$$."
D324 Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Pocosin, note: The very different climate and floristic composition of pocosins warrants their own division.
Physiognomy and Structure: Bogs and fens are dominated by shrubs or dwarf-shrubs, herb, and moss vegetation. Acidic stands are typically heath or ericaceous. Short or stunted trees are often present but trees >5-10 m tall have <10% canopy.
Floristics: Dominant species vary greatly across the geographic range and differences in water chemistry/minerotrophy. Acidic stands typically usually contain dwarf-shrubs such as Andromeda polifolia, Betula nana, Chamaedaphne calyculata, Empetrum nigrum, Kalmia polifolia, Ledum groenlandicum, and Vaccinium spp. A diverse group of sedges may be present. Common sedges include Carex aquatilis, Carex oligosperma, Carex chordorrhiza, Carex limosa, Carex livida, Carex lasiocarpa, Carex magellanica ssp. irrigua (= Carex paupercula), Carex pauciflora, and Carex pluriflora. Other herbs include Eriophorum vaginatum, Eriophorum virginicum, Drosera rotundifolia, Menyanthes trifoliata, Sarracenia purpurea, and Scheuchzeria palustris. The most common stunted trees include Picea mariana, Larix laricina and Pinus contorta var. contorta. Species more likely to be found in circumneutral to alkaline wetlands include short or tall shrubs such as Alnus serrulata, Betula spp., Cornus amomum, Cornus sericea, Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Myrica gale, Salix spp., and herbaceous species such as Carex interior, Carex lurida, Carex leptalea, Carex sterilis, Comarum palustre, Dulichium arundinaceum, Lobelia kalmii, Spartina pectinata, and Symplocarpus foetidus. Sphagnum spp., liverworts, and brown mosses are very common or abundant in many sites. Common short trees include Larix laricina, and southward, Thuja occidentalis.
Dynamics: No Data Available
Environmental Description: Soils/substrate: Soils are organic peat, muck, or marl and saturated throughout most or all of the growing season. Depth of peat accumulation (>40 cm) is typical, but richer sites may contain mucky or marl soils. Water chemistry and nutrient levels are important in maintaining the character of these wetlands. The pH can vary from acidic to basic, and mineral input varies from very poor in ombrotrophic bogs to rich in some fens. Water source can be limited to only precipitation (true bogs) to mineral-rich groundwater flow, precipitation, and overland runoff. In boreal and sub-boreal settings, bogs and fens can be very extensive, occupying many hectares in relatively shallow basins. Throughout the range of this division, stands can be of more limited size in smaller depressions, along the edges of streams or lakes, or where groundwater seeps or springs reach the surface.
Geographic Range: This division is found from boreal Canada south to northern California and the mountainous western U.S., in the northern Great Plains, and across the midwestern and northeastern United States and southeastern Canada.
Nations: CA, US
States/Provinces: AB?, AK, AL, AR, AZ, BC, CA, CO, CT, DE, IA, ID, IL, IN, KY, MA, MB, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NB, ND, NH, NJ, NS, NU, NV, NY, OH, ON, OR, PA, PE?, QC, RI, SD, SK, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY, YT
US Forest Service Ecoregions (2007)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name:
Section Code:     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Plot Analysis Summary:
Confidence Level: Moderate
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: GNR
Greasons:
Name:Database Code:Classification Code:
Class 2 Shrub & Herb Vegetation C02 2
Subclass 2.C Shrub & Herb Wetland S44 2.C
Formation 2.C.2 Temperate to Polar Bog & Fen F016 2.C.2
Division 2.C.2.Na North American Bog & Fen D029 2.C.2.Na
Macrogroup M063 North Pacific Bog & Fen M063 2.C.2.Na.3
Macrogroup M876 North American Boreal & Subboreal Bog & Acidic Fen M876 2.C.2.Na.1
Macrogroup M877 North American Boreal & Subboreal Alkaline Fen M877 2.C.2.Na.2
Concept Lineage:
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy: > Oxycocco-Sphagnetea (Rodwell et al. 2002) [acidic peatlands of Europe.]
> Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae (Rodwell et al. 2002) [alkaline peatlands of Europe.]
Concept Author(s): W.J. Mitsch and J.G. Gosselink (2000)
Author of Description: D. Faber-Langendoen and J. Drake
Acknowledgements:
Version Date: 06Jan2016
References:
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., J. Drake, S. Gawler, M. Hall, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, L. Sneddon, K. Schulz, J. Teague, M. Russo, K. Snow, and P. Comer, editors. 2010-2019a. Divisions, Macrogroups and Groups for the Revised U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. plus appendices. [in preparation]
  • Mitsch, W. J., and J. G. Gosselink. 2000. Wetlands. Third edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 920 pp.
  • Rodwell, J. S., J. H. J. Schamine√©, L. Mucian, S. Pignatti, J. Dring, and D. Moss. 2002. The diversity of European vegetation. An overview of phytosociological alliances and their relationships to EUNIS habitats. Report EC-LNV nr. 2002/054. National Reference Centre for Agriculture, Nature and Fisheries, Wageningen,The Netherlands.