|Translated Name:||Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland Formation|
|Colloquial Name:||Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland|
|Name:||Database Code:||Classification Code:|
|Class||1 Forest & Woodland||C01||1|
|Subclass||1.B Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland||S15||1.B|
|Formation||1.B.2 Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland||F008||1.B.2|
|Division||1.B.2.Na Eastern North American Forest & Woodland||D008||1.B.2.Na|
|Division||1.B.2.Nc Western North American Pinyon - Juniper Woodland & Scrub||D010||1.B.2.Nc|
|Division||1.B.2.Nd Vancouverian Forest & Woodland||D192||1.B.2.Nd|
|Division||1.B.2.Nb Rocky Mountain Forest & Woodland||D194||1.B.2.Nb|
|Division||1.B.2.Ne North American Great Plains Forest & Woodland||D326||1.B.2.Ne|
Related Type Name:Short Citation:
|Nations:||AU, CA, CL, CN, ES, FR, GB, IT, JP, MX, NZ, RU, SE, TR, US|
|Range:||This formation is most prominent in the Northern Hemisphere, where it occurs in four major, disjunct expressions in (1) western and central Europe, (2) eastern Asia, including Korea and Japan, (3) eastern North America, and (4) western North America. Cool-temperate forests may occur as minor components of southern and montane New Zealand and in Australia, especially Tasmania. Cool-temperate forests also occur in Chile.|
Inclusion of western North American conifer forests and woodlands in this temperate formation (rather a broadly defined boreal and temperate conifer forest) follows that of Brandt (2009). However, some authors expand the boreal formation to include the subalpine or high montane forests within the temperate zone (e.g., Whittaker (1975) - the "subarctic-subalpine needle-leaved forests"; Brown et al. (1998) - Boreal and Subalpine Forest & Woodland). Within North America, this creates challenges for placement of Picea rubens (red spruce) forests in the northern temperate region, which are partly subalpine or high montane, but are most common at lower elevations. We follow a more floristic, biogeographic and ecological approach in treating the subalpine forests with their lower elevation counterparts at the formation level. But we recognize that high montane and subalpine forests are also similar to boreal forests in regard to some aspects of climate, species diversity patterns, and floristic similarity (at least at the genus level). Warm-temperate and cool-temperate forest & woodland formations are very similar, but differences are driven by increasing presence of broad-leaved evergreen trees and shrubs, and evergreen herb layer that corresponds with broad climatic patterns. Overlap with boreal forests in the western montane region also presents conceptual challenges.
|US Forest Service Ecoregions|
Province Code:   Occurrence Status:
Section Code:     Occurrence Status:
To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.
About spatial standards:
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About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Formation level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.
For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:
Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).
Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.
Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.
FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]
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