|Translated Name:||Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland Subclass|
|Colloquial Name:||Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland|
|Criterion||BOREAL FOREST & WOODLAND |
(upland and wetland)
|COOL TEMPERATE FOREST & WOODLAND |
(upland and wetland)
|WARM TEMPERATE FOREST & WOODLAND |
(upland and wetland)
|Dominant growth forms||Needle-leaved (usually evergreen) conifer, often strongly conical-shaped, and simple, broad-leaved, small mesophyll deciduous hardwoods.||Broad-leaved deciduous or evergreen needle-leaved conifer, alone or in mixes, variable leaf and crown shapes, and leave sizes typically mesophyll with a seasonal green understory of herbs. The tall-shrub layer is variable, and is often broad-leaved deciduous, but the short-shrub layer may be heath. The moss layer is often sparse, but more dominant in cold, rainy and/or high montane needle-leaved evergreen stands.||Broad-leaved evergreen trees, microphyll to small mesophyll leaves, sometimes dwarfed stems, sclerophyllous or small-leaved trees (e.g., eucalypts, sclerophyllous oaks); or various combinations of broad-leaved deciduous, broad-leaved evergreen or evergreen needle-leaved conifer trees.|
|Location||Northern Hemisphere south of the arctic treeline.||Middle latitudes of North America, western and far-eastern Eurasia, and an isolated small area in the middle latitude of South America.||Mediterranean Basin and Mediterranean and warm temperate regions in North America (California, Southeast Coastal Plain), Chile, South Africa, Australia, India and Southeast Asia.|
|Climate type||Cold snow climates, with extended cold winters and short mild summers, frozen soils in winter.||Humid temperate climates with distinctive spring, summer, autumn, and cool to cold winter seasons, with freezing temperatures.||Mild (mostly frost-free) winter, temperate humid spring, hot-dry summer, and mild, often dry autumn seasons. Rainy season in winter and dry summers (Mediterranean).|
|Temperature||Lengthy periods of freezing temperatures with the coldest month isotherm -3o C, with the growing season generally averaging less than 100 days, occasionally interrupted by nights of below-freezing temperatures.||Freezing temperatures usually of moderate duration, although of frequent occurrence during winter months. Potential growing season generally from 100 to 200 days and confined to late spring and summer when freezing temperatures are infrequent or absent.||Freezing temperatures of short duration but generally occurring every year during winter months. Potential growing season more than 200 days with less than an average of 150 days a year subject to temperatures below 0o C or chilling fog.|
|Precipitation controls||Seasonal shift of polar front.||Summer convectional storms, Atlantic hurricanes, Asian monsoons.||Stationary high-pressure cells in summer.|
|Precipitation (annual)||38-50 cm (15-20 inches)||75-125 cm (30-50 inches).||25 to 100 cm (10-40 inches) (Mediterranean).|
|Dominant Soil-Forming Process||Podzolization||Podzolization.||Severe weathering.|
|Major Soil Orders (Soil Survey Staff 1999)||Gelisols, some Spodosols in south.||Alfisols and Ultisols, some Spodosols in north.||Various, Ultisols and Alfisols common.|
|Soil characteristics||Sandy ash-colored A horizon; accumulation of minerals in B horizon; generally low in natural fertility.||Gray forest soils with accumulated silicate clay minerals in B horizon; some (Alfisols) with relatively high natural fertility; more leached soils in southern areas (Ultisols) due to higher precipitation levels.||Naturally productive soils, some regions worn by thousands of years of human use.|
|Biogeographic History||Recent-post Pleistocene migration of plants and animals.||Recent-post Pleistocene to ancient Tertiary origins.||Recent to more ancient, some regions influenced by thousands of years of human use.|
|Name:||Database Code:||Classification Code:|
|Class||1 Forest & Woodland||C01||1|
|Subclass||1.B Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland||S15||1.B|
|Formation||1.B.4 Boreal Forest & Woodland||F001||1.B.4|
|Formation||1.B.5 Boreal Flooded & Swamp Forest||F036||1.B.5|
|Formation||1.B.2 Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland||F008||1.B.2|
|Formation||1.B.1 Warm Temperate Forest & Woodland||F018||1.B.1|
|Formation||1.B.3 Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest||F026||1.B.3|
Related Type Name:Short Citation:
|Range:||Temperate forests and woodlands range from the giant forests of the Pacific Coast of North America, or the Australian temperate rainforests, to New Zealand and Chile, to montane forests in various locations. Temperate forests and woodlands occur across much of the United States and southern Canada, in limited parts of Mesoamerica, western Europe, Mediterranean regions, Southeast Asia, southern Australia, and limited parts of Chile. Boreal forests and woodlands occur in the northern regions of North America and Eurasia. A few isolated areas may occur in the Southern Hemisphere.|
|US Forest Service Ecoregions|
Province Code:   Occurrence Status:
Section Code:     Occurrence Status:
To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.
About spatial standards:
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About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Subclass level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.
For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:
Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).
Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.
Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.
FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]
For additional information contact: