Invalid Unit Specified
G573 Pinus monticola / Arctostaphylos nevadensis Vancouverian Cliff, Scree & Rock Vegetation Group

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence: This group is found on steep slopes, cliff faces, and rock outcrops, where the vegetation is highly variable, sparse and scattered, and dominated by mosses and lichens, and occasionally woody species. It occurs in the eastern Cascades, subalpine elevations of the Sierra Nevada, and the Klamath Mountains.
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Western White Pine / Pinemat Manzanita Cliff, Scree & Rock Vegetation Group
Colloquial Name: Southern Vancouverian Cliff, Scree & Rock Vegetation
Hierarchy Level: Group
Type Concept: This group is known from the Wenatchee Mountains in the east Cascades, subalpine elevations throughout the Sierra Nevada, and Klamath Mountains. Sites include steep slopes, steep cliff faces, narrow canyons, and rock outcrops. Substrates include thin rocky, ultramafic (peridotite, serpentinite) soils in the Cascades, and unstable scree below cliff faces in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Range. Parent materials are derived from various igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic bedrock. Vegetation is highly variable and typically sparse and scattered, varying from areas dominated by mosses and lichens to occasional closed forests in the Cascades. Species in the Cascades may include Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus monticola trees with a sparse ground cover with Aspidotis densa, Arctostaphylos nevadensis, and Pseudoroegneria spicata at low-elevation sites. Higher elevations have Pinus contorta var. latifolia, Pinus albicaulis, Abies lasiocarpa, and Tsuga mertensiana with Juniperus communis, Ledum glandulosum, Vaccinium scoparium, Poa curtifolia, and Festuca viridula. Scattered vegetation in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains may include Abies magnifica, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus contorta var. murrayana, Pinus ponderosa, Pinus jeffreyi, Populus tremuloides, or Pinus monophylla, Juniperus osteosperma, and Cercocarpus ledifolius at lower elevations. There may be shrubs, including species of Arctostaphylos or Ceanothus. Soil development is limited as is herbaceous cover.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Sparsely vegetated to rarely forested mixed shrub and tree vegetation occupying cliffs, steep cliff faces, bald ridgetops and shoulder outcrops, narrow canyons, smaller rock outcrops and scree slopes of the Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range and Klamath Mountains. The importance of nonvascular species such as mosses and lichens are one of the defining characteristics which distinguish this group from surrounding shrub or treed groups.
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: This group (G573) and North Vancouverian Montane Bedrock, Cliff & Talus Vegetation Group (G318) both represent Vancouverian cliff, scree and rock vegetation. They are distinguished as northern and southern analogs; this group being the latter. However, more work is required to delineate a more accurate geographic distribution between the two. This group, as well as other lithomorphic types of vegetation, may be better defined by nonvascular species. However, insufficient information is available to validate this possibility.
Similar NVC Types:
G563 Californian Cliff, Scree & Rock Vegetation, note:
Physiognomy and Structure: Highly variable structure and physiognomy ranging from sparse woody vegetation consisting of open tree and shrub strata or exclusively shrubs to closed canopy forests. Herbs contribute little cover.
Floristics: Vegetation is highly variable and typically sparse and scattered with occasional closed forests in the Cascades. Species in the Cascades may include Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus monticola trees with a sparse ground cover with Aspidotis densa, Arctostaphylos nevadensis, and Pseudoroegneria spicata at low-elevation sites. Higher elevations have Pinus contorta var. latifolia, Pinus albicaulis, Abies lasiocarpa, and Tsuga mertensiana with Juniperus communis, Ledum glandulosum, Vaccinium scoparium, Poa curtifolia, and Festuca viridula. Vegetation in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains may include Abies magnifica, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus contorta var. murrayana, Pinus ponderosa, Pinus jeffreyi, Populus tremuloides, or Pinus monophylla, Juniperus osteosperma, and Cercocarpus ledifolius at lower elevations. There may be shrubs, including species of Arctostaphylos or Ceanothus. Herbaceous cover is limited.
Dynamics: Poor soil development, high levels of exposure and steep sites impede the establishment of species from surrounding communities and maintain occurrences of this group.
Environmental Description: This group is known from the Wenatchee Mountains in the east Cascades, subalpine elevations throughout the Sierra Nevada, and Klamath Mountains. Sites include steep slopes, steep cliff faces, narrow canyons, and rock outcrops. Soil/substrate/hydrology: Substrates include thin rocky, ultramafic (peridotite, serpentinite) soils in the Cascades, and unstable scree below cliff faces in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains. Parent materials are derived from various igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic bedrock. Soil development is limited.
Geographic Range: This group is known from the Wenatchee Mountains in the east Cascades, subalpine elevations throughout the Sierra Nevada, and Klamath Mountains.
Nations: CA, US
States/Provinces: CA, OR
US Forest Service Ecoregions (2007)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Sierran Steppe - Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M261    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Cascades Section
Section Code: M242B     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions: 4:P, 4d:P, 4e:P, 4f:P, 4g:P, 4h:P, 5:P, 5a:P, 5b:P, 5c:P, 5d:P, 5e:P, 5f:P, 5g:P, 5h:P, 5i:P, 5j:P, 5k:P, 5l:P, 5m:P, 5n:P, 5o:P, 6:P, 6a:P, 6b:P, 6c:P, 6d:P, 6ae:P, 7:P, 7a:P, 7b:P, 7c:P, 7d:P, 7e:P, 7n:P, 7p:P, 9:P, 9k:P, 9p:P, 9r:P, 9s:P, 9t:P, 13:P, 13v:P, 13w:P, 13x:P, 13y:P, 13aa:P, 13ab:P, 13ac:P, 13ad:P, 78:P, 78a:P, 78c:P, 78d:P, 78f:P, 78g:P, 78i:P, 78j:P, 78k:P, 78l:P, 78m:P, 78n:P, 78o:P, 78p:P
Plot Analysis Summary:
Confidence Level: Low
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: GNR
Greasons:
Concept Lineage:
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy:
Concept Author(s): R. Crawford and T. Keeler-Wolf, in Faber-Langendoen et al. (2011)
Author of Description: M.E. Hall
Acknowledgements: D. Meidinger, J. Sawyer
Version Date: 09Sep2013
References:
  • Barbour, M. G., and J. Major, editors. 1988. Terrestrial vegetation of California: New expanded edition. California Native Plant Society, Special Publication 9, Sacramento. 1030 pp.
  • Barbour, M. G., T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. A. Schoenherr, editors. 2007a. Terrestrial vegetation of California, third edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, M. Russo, K. Schulz, K. Snow, J. Teague, and R. White. 2003-present. Ecological systems of the United States: A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.
  • del Moral, R. 1982. Control of vegetation on contrasting substrates: Herb patterns on serpentine and sandstone. American Journal of Botany 69(20):227-238.
  • Faber-Langendoen, D., J. Drake, S. Gawler, M. Hall, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, C. Nordman, M. Pyne, M. Reid, L. Sneddon, K. Schulz, J. Teague, M. Russo, K. Snow, and P. Comer, editors. 2010-2019a. Divisions, Macrogroups and Groups for the Revised U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. plus appendices. [in preparation]
  • Holland, V. L., and D. J. Keil. 1995. California vegetation. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA. 516 pp.
  • Kruckeberg, A. R. 1984. California serpentines: Flora, vegetation, geology, soils, and management problems. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Sawyer, J. O., and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 471 pp.
  • Sawyer, J. O., T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Evens. 2009. A manual of California vegetation. Second edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento CA. 1300 pp.