Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Beaksedge species - Spikerush species - Yellow-eyed-grass species Pondshore & Wet Prairie Group
Colloquial Name: Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Pondshore & Wet Prairie
Hierarchy Level: Group
Type Concept: This group occurs in depressions or poorly drained wet flats. The vegetation in depressions usually ranges from open water or floating-leaved aquatics in the center of the deepest basins, to emergent marsh zones in semipermanent water, to drawdown zones with diverse small graminoid and forb vegetation, to dense shrub or woodland edges. Wet prairie vegetation is found on extensive wet flats and consists of primarily herbaceous wetland vegetation with relatively thick cover of grasses and sedge species. Examples occupy low, flat plains on poorly drained soils, often saturated for 50-100 days per year. Occasional to frequent fires, including growing-season burns, are essential for maintenance of this vegetation. Some examples have a sparse tree component of Pinus elliottii or Pinus palustris and scattered shrubs, such as Morella cerifera from Virginia south and Pinus rigida and Morella pensylvanica to the north. Common taxa include Rhynchospora spp., Eleocharis spp., and Xyris spp. These often occur with other graminoids such as species of Andropogon, Aristida, Carex, Eriocaulon, and Panicum. This group is found from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to the Delmarva Peninsula to the Outer Coastal Plain of Virginia, to Florida.
Diagnostic Characteristics: These are herbaceous wetlands, often mixed with low shrubs. They occur in depressions or on wet flats on the coastal plain of the southeastern United States, including some areas as far north as Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Common taxa include species of Rhynchospora, Eleocharis, Aristida, and Xyris.
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: This group occurs in depressions and on poorly drained wet flats. Floristically, it may overlap with Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Seep Group (G187), which occurs on seepage wetlands, and generally has some slope. These two groups are separated based on hydrogeomorphic factors, and a better understanding of the floristic similarities and differences is needed. Dune swales are covered in Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Interdunal Marsh & Prairie Group (G777) so they are omitted from this group (G111). Plus some dune swales are subject to salt spray, saltwater overwash, and heavy rainfall from storms, which may affect these dune swales and limit vegetation to species that are somewhat salt-tolerant. For coastal uplands, North Atlantic Coastal Dune & Grassland Group (G493) covers New England, New York, and Great Lakes dune swales; South Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Dune & Grassland Group (G494) captures the dune and coastal grasslands and shrublands of the mid or south Atlantic Coast. Dune associations CEGL003790 and CEGL004117 have been moved to Fimbristylis castanea - Schoenoplectus pungens Coastal Marsh Alliance (A1372) in G777. CEGL004137 and CEGL004138 (Typha associations) have been moved to Typha domingensis Coastal Marsh Alliance (A3399) also in G777. CEGL004639 is Crataegus-dominated and has been moved to Crataegus aestivalis - Crataegus opaca - Crataegus rufula Swamp Forest Alliance (A0320) in Coastal Plain Hardwood Basin Swamp Group (G038). CEGL007733, also a Crataegus forests has been dropped. CEGL006177 is a tidal association; it has been moved to Peltandra virginica - Pontederia cordata - Sagittaria spp. Oligohaline Tidal Marsh Alliance (A4017) in Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Fresh-Oligohaline Tidal Marsh Group (G110). CEGL006350 is maritime and should be reviewed. CEGL007790 has been moved to Spartina spartinae - Schizachyrium scoparium - Liatris bracteata Saline Coastal Prairie Alliance (A4061) in South Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Dune & Grassland Group (G494). If dune swales are included (now placed in G777), then Federal lands (of G777) should be updated to include Assateague, Cape Cod, Chincoteague, Fire Island, Plum Island, and maybe others.
Similar NVC Types:
G190 Wet-Mesic Longleaf Pine Open Woodland, note:
G187 Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Seep, note:
G129 South Florida Freshwater Marsh & Wet Prairie, note:
G557 Southeastern Ruderal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland, note:
G777 Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Interdunal Marsh & Prairie, note:
Physiognomy and Structure: These wetlands are generally dominated by herbaceous graminoid vegetation. There often are some woody plants, such as low shrubs and/or scattered tall shrubs or trees present. The tall shrubs have more cover on sites that have not been recently burned.
Floristics: Common taxa include Rhynchospora spp., Eleocharis spp., and Xyris spp. Herbaceous plants include Aristida beyrichiana, Aristida palustris, Bartonia verna, Carex striata, Centella erecta, Ctenium aromaticum, Cyperus haspan, Cyperus virens, Dichanthelium erectifolium, Dichanthelium wrightianum, Eleocharis elongata, Eleocharis equisetoides, Eleocharis microcarpa, Eleocharis quadrangulata, Fuirena scirpoidea, Fuirena squarrosa, Juncus abortivus, Juncus effusus, Juncus repens, Lachnanthes caroliana, Lachnocaulon minus, Leersia hexandra, Ludwigia glandulosa, Ludwigia linearis, Ludwigia spp., Panicum hemitomon, Panicum rigidulum, Panicum verrucosum, Panicum virgatum, Proserpinaca spp., Rhexia alifanus, Rhexia cubensis, Rhexia spp., Rhynchospora chapmanii, Rhynchospora corniculata, Rhynchospora filifolia, Rhynchospora harperi, Rhynchospora inundata, Rhynchospora tracyi, Sabatia angularis, Saccharum spp., Sagittaria longiloba, Sagittaria papillosa, Steinchisma hians, Symphyotrichum subulatum, and Xyris jupicai. Some examples have a sparse tree component of Pinus elliottii, Pinus palustris, or Pinus rigida and scattered shrubs, such as Clethra alnifolia, Morella cerifera, Morella pensylvanica, or Vaccinium corymbosum. Other woody plants include Acer rubrum, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Hypericum chapmanii, Hypericum fasciculatum, Hypericum reductum, Ilex myrtifolia, Magnolia virginiana, Nyssa biflora, Nyssa sylvatica, and Taxodium ascendens. Other characteristic and often dominant species for the northern part of the range (Massachusetts to New York or New Jersey) include Cyperus dentatus, Dichanthelium meridionale, Eleocharis acicularis, Eleocharis robbinsii, Eriocaulon aquaticum (= Eriocaulon septangulare), Euthamia caroliniana (= Euthamia tenuifolia), Gratiola aurea, Juncus militaris, Juncus pelocarpus, Lobelia dortmanna, and Xyris difformis.
Dynamics: Water table fluctuations are probably the most important factor affecting examples of this vegetation (Bridges and Orzell 1989a). In depressions, hydroperiod can vary substantially from year to year, and vegetation can similarly vary significantly in aspect and dominants. Fire is also an important natural dynamic process, especially when sites are saturated, without standing water at the surface. On barrier islands, ponds usually occur in stable portions of the islands, where they may last for decades.
Environmental Description: Climate: South of Virginia, the climate is humid, warm temperate. From eastern Virginia to Cape Cod, Massachusetts, the climate is humid, cool temperate. Soil/substrate/hydrology: This vegetation occupies low, flat plains on poorly drained Ultisols. Other soil orders may include Spodosols, Inceptisols, and Entisols (Collins et al. 2001); some of these soils have an argillic horizon which impedes drainage and contributes to high water tables. On Eglin Air Force Base, this group is found on the Rutledge series (Kindell et al. 1997). The low areas where this vegetation occurs on barrier islands and similar immediate coastal areas are dune swales or other basins. The ponds have standing water well into the growing season, and most are permanently saturated. The vegetation also occurs in small basins, primarily in sandy terrain of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, from southeastern Virginia to Florida, including the Lake Wales Ridge area of central Florida. Most southeast basins are formed by subsidence of surface sediments caused by solution in underlying limestone, but origins may be different from Delaware northward.
Geographic Range: This group is found from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to the Delmarva Peninsula to the Outer Coastal Plain of Virginia, to Florida. Review is needed to determine if the type extends to southeastern Texas and Louisiana.
Nations: CA, US
States/Provinces: AL, DE, FL, GA, LA?, MA, MD, ME, MS, NC, NJ, NY, SC, TX?, VA
|US Forest Service Ecoregions (2007)|
Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Confident or certain
Southern Atlantic Coastal Plains and Flatwoods Section
Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions: 34:C, 34a:C, 35:C, 35f:C, 63:C, 63b:C, 63c:C, 63e:C, 63f:C, 63h:C, 65:C, 65f:C, 65g:C, 65h:C, 65l:C, 65m:C, 65o:C, 75:C, 75a:C, 75b:C, 75c:C, 75d:C, 75e:C, 75f:C, 75g:C, 75h:C, 75j:C
Confidence Level: Moderate
Confidence Level Comments:
Synonomy: >< Clastic Upland Lake (FNAI 1990)
>< Coastal Interdunal Swale (FNAI 1990)
>< Depression Marsh (FNAI 1990)
>< Flatwoods/Prairie/Marsh Lake (FNAI 1990)
>< Limesink (Wharton 1978)
> Open Water Lake (Bennett and Nelson 1991)
? Sandhill Upland Lake (FNAI 1990)
>< Sinkhole Lake (FNAI 1990)
>< Wet Prairie (FNAI 1990)
>< grass-sedge savannah (Clewell 1981)
Concept Author(s): A.F. Clewell (1981)
Author of Description: C.W. Nordman, D. Faber-Langendoen and J. Lundgren
Acknowledgements: J. Lundgren
Version Date: 13May2015
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- FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 1990. Guide to the natural communities of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory and Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee. 111 pp.
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- Peet, R. K., and D. J. Allard. 1993. Longleaf pine vegetation of the Southern Atlantic and Eastern Gulf Coast regions: A preliminary classification. Pages 45-81 in: S. M. Hermann, editor. The Longleaf Pine Ecosystem: Ecology, restoration and management. Proceedings of the eighteenth Tall Timbers fire ecology conference. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.
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- Wharton, C. H. 1978. The natural environments of Georgia. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta. 227 pp.
- Wieland, Ron G. Personal communication. Ecologist, Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks, Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Mississippi Natural Heritage Program, Jackson.