Invalid Unit Specified
Association Detail Report: CEGL006493
Fagus grandifolia - Carya cordiformis - Quercus michauxii / Ilex opaca var. opaca / Podophyllum peltatum Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
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Translated Name:American Beech - Bitternut Hickory - Swamp Chestnut Oak/ American Holly / Mayapple Forest
Colloquial Name:Northern Coastal Plain Beech - Mixed Hardwood Floodplain Forest
This association is known only from floodplains of the Mattaponi and Pamunkey rivers in the central Coastal Plain of Virginia. It occurs on high, well-drained floodplain levees and terraces along small to medium-sized rivers. Sites are probably flooded every 2-5 years. Soils are fine sandy loams and loamy sands, with moderately low to moderately high calcium, magnesium, and total base saturation levels. Stands are codominated by variable combinations of Fagus grandifolia (constant), Carya cordiformis (constant), Quercus michauxii (less constant), and Quercus shumardii (least constant). Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Celtis occidentalis, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica are minor overstory species, especially in disturbed stands. There is little recruitment of any overstory species, and subcanopy layers are dominated by Ilex opaca var. opaca, which occasionally approaches canopy-tree status. The shrub layer varies from sparse to dense, with Asimina triloba, Viburnum prunifolium, Lindera benzoin, Ilex decidua, and Carpinus caroliniana all constant in plot samples. The herb layer varies from patchy to dense and lush, with a number of nutrient-demanding forbs prominent. Herbaceous patch-dominants include Asarum canadense, Cardamine concatenata, Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis, Claytonia virginica, Dicentra cucullaria, Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum, Hydrophyllum virginianum, Mertensia virginica, Podophyllum peltatum, Polemonium reptans, and Viola pubescens. The graminoids Carex radiata, Chasmanthium latifolium, and Poa autumnalis may also be locally abundant.
No Data Available
Classification based on analysis of a 1250-plot regional dataset for the National Capital Region and Mid-Atlantic National Parks vegetation mapping project. This type is based on eight plots from eastern Virginia that performed convincingly as a discrete group among other floodplain forest plots.
Synonomy: = Carya cordiformis - Fagus grandifolia Forest (Walton et al. 2001)
= Fagus grandifolia - Carya cordiformis - Quercus (michauxii, shumardii) / Ilex opaca Forest (Fleming and Patterson 2003)
= Ilex opaca / Vitis rotundifolia Forest (Walton et al. 2001)
= Quercus (shumardii, michauxii) - Carya cordiformis / Asimina triloba / Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis - Asarum canadense Forest (Fleming 2002a)
= Quercus (shumardii, michauxii) - Carya cordiformis / Asimina triloba / Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis - Asarum canadense Forest (Fleming 2002b)

Related Type Name:CEGL006493 appears to be significantly "richer" than any of the related types.

Short Citation:
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group n.d.
  • Fleming 2002a
  • Fleming 2002b
  • Fleming and Patterson 2003
  • Fleming and Patterson 2011a
  • Fleming et al. 2006
  • Fleming et al. 2007b
  • Walton et al. 2001
States/Provinces:VA
Nations:US
Range:This association is known only from floodplains of the Mattaponi and Pamunkey rivers in the central Coastal Plain of Virginia.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name:Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code:232   Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
Section Name:Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code:232B     Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
No Data Available
Stands are codominated by variable combinations of Fagus grandifolia (constant), Carya cordiformis (constant), Quercus michauxii (less constant), and Quercus shumardii (least constant). Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Celtis occidentalis, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica are minor overstory species, especially in disturbed stands. There is little recruitment of any overstory species, and subcanopy layers are dominated by Ilex opaca var. opaca, which occasionally approaches canopy-tree status. The shrub layer varies from sparse to dense, with Asimina triloba, Viburnum prunifolium, Lindera benzoin, Ilex decidua, and Carpinus caroliniana all constant in plot samples. The herb layer varies from patchy to dense and lush, with a number of nutrient-demanding forbs prominent. Herbaceous patch-dominants include Asarum canadense, Cardamine concatenata, Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis, Claytonia virginica, Dicentra cucullaria, Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum, Hydrophyllum virginianum, Mertensia virginica, Podophyllum peltatum, Polemonium reptans, and Viola pubescens. The graminoids Carex radiata, Chasmanthium latifolium, and Poa autumnalis may also be locally abundant. Mean species richness of eight plots is 41 taxa per 400 square meters. Some of the stands are impressively mature, with some of the dominant trees exceeding 80 cm dbh.
This community occurs on high, well-drained floodplain levees and terraces along small to medium-sized rivers of the northern Coastal Plain. Sites are probably flooded every 2-5 years. Soils are fine sandy loams and loamy sands, with variable base status. Samples collected from eight plots are all extremely acidic but range from moderately low to moderately high in calcium, magnesium, and total base saturation levels. All samples have high manganese content.
Low - Poorly Documented
No Data Available
Authors:
G.P. Fleming      Version Date: 31May2007


References:
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.
  • Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.
  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.
  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.
  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
  • Walton, D. P., P. P. Coulling, J. Weber, A. Belden, Jr., and A. C. Chazal. 2001. A plant community classification and natural heritage inventory of the Pamunkey River floodplain. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-19. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 200 pp. plus appendices.


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

Date Accessed:

To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

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About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Association level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

U.S. Government
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Department of the Interior (USDI)
  • Forest Service (FS) - Chair
  • National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS)
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)
  • U.S. Navy (NAVY)
  • Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
  • National Park Service (NPS)
  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Non U.S. Government
  • NatureServe (NS)
  • Ecological Society of America (ESA)

Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)