Invalid Unit Specified
CEGL006493 Fagus grandifolia - Carya cordiformis - Quercus michauxii / Ilex opaca var. opaca / Podophyllum peltatum Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence:
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: American Beech - Bitternut Hickory - Swamp Chestnut Oak/ American Holly / Mayapple Forest
Colloquial Name: Northern Coastal Plain Beech - Mixed Hardwood Floodplain Forest
Hierarchy Level: Association
Type Concept: This association is known only from floodplains of the Mattaponi and Pamunkey rivers in the central Coastal Plain of Virginia. It occurs on high, well-drained floodplain levees and terraces along small to medium-sized rivers. Sites are probably flooded every 2-5 years. Soils are fine sandy loams and loamy sands, with moderately low to moderately high calcium, magnesium, and total base saturation levels. Stands are codominated by variable combinations of Fagus grandifolia (constant), Carya cordiformis (constant), Quercus michauxii (less constant), and Quercus shumardii (least constant). Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Celtis occidentalis, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica are minor overstory species, especially in disturbed stands. There is little recruitment of any overstory species, and subcanopy layers are dominated by Ilex opaca var. opaca, which occasionally approaches canopy-tree status. The shrub layer varies from sparse to dense, with Asimina triloba, Viburnum prunifolium, Lindera benzoin, Ilex decidua, and Carpinus caroliniana all constant in plot samples. The herb layer varies from patchy to dense and lush, with a number of nutrient-demanding forbs prominent. Herbaceous patch-dominants include Asarum canadense, Cardamine concatenata, Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis, Claytonia virginica, Dicentra cucullaria, Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum, Hydrophyllum virginianum, Mertensia virginica, Podophyllum peltatum, Polemonium reptans, and Viola pubescens. The graminoids Carex radiata, Chasmanthium latifolium, and Poa autumnalis may also be locally abundant.
Diagnostic Characteristics: No Data Available
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: Classification based on analysis of a 1250-plot regional dataset for the National Capital Region and Mid-Atlantic National Parks vegetation mapping project. This type is based on eight plots from eastern Virginia that performed convincingly as a discrete group among other floodplain forest plots.
Similar NVC Types:
Fagus grandifolia - Liquidambar styraciflua - Quercus (michauxii, nigra) Forest, note: floodplain levee / terrace forest of the southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain. Composition suggests very acidic soils.
Fagus grandifolia - Acer barbatum / Asimina triloba / Toxicodendron radicans / Carex blanda Forest, note: levee forest of the NC (-GA?) Piedmont.
Fagus grandifolia - Carya spp. / (Acer negundo, Magnolia macrophylla, Tilia americana var. heterophylla) Floodplain Forest, note: floodplain forest of the East Gulf and Upper East Gulf coastal plains.
Quercus rubra - Quercus shumardii / Cercis canadensis Floodplain Forest, note:
Physiognomy and Structure: No Data Available
Floristics: Stands are codominated by variable combinations of Fagus grandifolia (constant), Carya cordiformis (constant), Quercus michauxii (less constant), and Quercus shumardii (least constant). Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Celtis occidentalis, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica are minor overstory species, especially in disturbed stands. There is little recruitment of any overstory species, and subcanopy layers are dominated by Ilex opaca var. opaca, which occasionally approaches canopy-tree status. The shrub layer varies from sparse to dense, with Asimina triloba, Viburnum prunifolium, Lindera benzoin, Ilex decidua, and Carpinus caroliniana all constant in plot samples. The herb layer varies from patchy to dense and lush, with a number of nutrient-demanding forbs prominent. Herbaceous patch-dominants include Asarum canadense, Cardamine concatenata, Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis, Claytonia virginica, Dicentra cucullaria, Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum, Hydrophyllum virginianum, Mertensia virginica, Podophyllum peltatum, Polemonium reptans, and Viola pubescens. The graminoids Carex radiata, Chasmanthium latifolium, and Poa autumnalis may also be locally abundant. Mean species richness of eight plots is 41 taxa per 400 square meters. Some of the stands are impressively mature, with some of the dominant trees exceeding 80 cm dbh.
Dynamics: No Data Available
Environmental Description: This community occurs on high, well-drained floodplain levees and terraces along small to medium-sized rivers of the northern Coastal Plain. Sites are probably flooded every 2-5 years. Soils are fine sandy loams and loamy sands, with variable base status. Samples collected from eight plots are all extremely acidic but range from moderately low to moderately high in calcium, magnesium, and total base saturation levels. All samples have high manganese content.
Geographic Range: This association is known only from floodplains of the Mattaponi and Pamunkey rivers in the central Coastal Plain of Virginia.
Nations: US
States/Provinces: VA
US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Confidence Level: Low - Poorly Documented
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: GNR
Greasons: More information is needed to rank this community.
Concept Lineage:
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy: = Carya cordiformis - Fagus grandifolia Forest (Walton et al. 2001)
= Fagus grandifolia - Carya cordiformis - Quercus (michauxii, shumardii) / Ilex opaca Forest (Fleming and Patterson 2003)
= Ilex opaca / Vitis rotundifolia Forest (Walton et al. 2001)
= Quercus (shumardii, michauxii) - Carya cordiformis / Asimina triloba / Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis - Asarum canadense Forest (Fleming 2002a)
= Quercus (shumardii, michauxii) - Carya cordiformis / Asimina triloba / Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis - Asarum canadense Forest (Fleming 2002b)
Concept Author(s): G.P. Fleming (2002b)
Author of Description: G.P. Fleming
Acknowledgements:
Version Date: 31May2007
References:
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.
  • Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.
  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.
  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.
  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
  • Walton, D. P., P. P. Coulling, J. Weber, A. Belden, Jr., and A. C. Chazal. 2001. A plant community classification and natural heritage inventory of the Pamunkey River floodplain. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-19. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 200 pp. plus appendices.