Invalid Unit Specified
CEGL006448 Vernonia noveboracensis - Thelypteris palustris - Symplocarpus foetidus Seepage Meadow

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence:
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: New York Ironweed - Eastern Marsh Fern - Skunk-cabbage Seepage Meadow
Colloquial Name: Mid-Atlantic Rich Seep
Hierarchy Level: Association
Type Concept: These small wetlands (<1-6 acres) occur as patches within the forest matrix where calcareous groundwater discharge is present throughout the growing season. The substrate may vary from mineral soils to sapric peat (muck). Peat deposits, when present, are generally thin (<50 cm). This association is characterized by a highly variable species composition. Juniperus virginiana may be present, and tall shrubs may be present at low cover (<10%) and include Salix spp., Lindera benzoin, and Toxicodendron vernix. The short-shrub layer is also sparse and often dominated by willows. Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda (= Pentaphylloides floribunda) is not a typical associate, and if present, is at low cover. The shrub layers may contain invasive shrubs, especially Rosa multiflora, Lonicera morrowii, and Berberis thunbergii. Open sites with little or no woody plant cover often are dominated by graminoids, while more shaded sites have a higher cover of forb species. Herbaceous vegetation typically exceeds 90% and may reach 2 m in height in some forb species. Typical forb species include Vernonia noveboracensis, Thelypteris palustris, Viola spp., Packera aurea (= Senecio aureus), Symplocarpus foetidus, Arisaema triphyllum, Hydrocotyle americana, Eupatorium spp., Impatiens spp., Pycnanthemum verticillatum, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Mitella diphylla, Solidago uliginosa, Drosera rotundifolia, Parnassia glauca, and Chelone glabra. Typical graminoid species include Carex leptalea, Carex granularis, Carex atlantica, Carex debilis, Leersia oryzoides, Muhlenbergia glomerata, Rhynchospora alba, and Poa palustris. The invasive plants Lythrum salicaria and Microstegium vimineum may be present, the former particularly in more open seeps. Mosses are usually present but are typically <5% of total vegetation cover.
Diagnostic Characteristics: No Data Available
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: No Data Available
Similar NVC Types:
Juniperus virginiana / Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda / Carex flava - Carex tetanica Fen, note:
Symplocarpus foetidus - Impatiens capensis Seepage Meadow, note:
Caltha palustris - Impatiens capensis - Viola cucullata Seepage Meadow, note: are woodland seeps that are less species-rich and with fewer calciphiles.
Physiognomy and Structure: No Data Available
Floristics: This association is characterized by a highly variable species composition. Tall shrubs may be present at low cover (<10%) and include Salix spp., Lindera benzoin, and Toxicodendron vernix. The short-shrub layer is also sparse and often dominated by willows. Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda (= Pentaphylloides floribunda) is not a typical associate, and if present, is at low cover. The shrub layers may contain invasive shrubs, especially Rosa multiflora, Lonicera morrowii, and Berberis thunbergii. Open sites with little or no woody plant cover often are dominated by graminoids, while more shaded sites have a higher cover of forb species. Herbaceous vegetation typically exceeds 90% and may reach 2 m in height in some forb species. Typical forb species include Vernonia noveboracensis, Thelypteris palustris, Viola spp., Packera aurea (= Senecio aureus), Symplocarpus foetidus, Arisaema triphyllum, Hydrocotyle americana, Eupatorium spp., Impatiens spp., Pycnanthemum verticillatum, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Mitella diphylla, Solidago uliginosa, Drosera rotundifolia, Parnassia glauca, and Chelone glabra. Typical graminoid species include Carex leptalea, Carex granularis, Carex atlantica, Carex debilis, Leersia oryzoides, Muhlenbergia glomerata, Rhynchospora alba, and Poa palustris. The invasive plants Lythrum salicaria and Microstegium vimineum may be present, the former particularly in more open seeps. Mosses are usually present but are typically <5% of total vegetation cover.
Dynamics: No Data Available
Environmental Description: These small wetlands (<1-6 acres) occur where calcareous groundwater discharge is present throughout the growing season. The substrate may vary from mineral soils to sapric peat (muck). Peat deposits, when present, are generally thin (<50 cm).
Geographic Range: This community is currently known from New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania and is possible over a larger area.
Nations: US
States/Provinces: NJ, NY, PA
US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Confidence Level: Low
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: G1
Greasons: This small-patch association is restricted to seepage areas in calcareous bedrock. It has a narrow range extent, occurring in only three states, and occurrences are only a few acres in size. This association is vulnerable to runoff from development and road construction, logging and other activities adjacent to the fen. This vegetation is prone to invasive species incursion, and is threatened by altered hydrology, both human-induced and that caused by beavers.
Concept Lineage:
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy:
Concept Author(s): G.S. Podniesinski
Author of Description: S.C. Gawler and L.A. Sneddon
Acknowledgements:
Version Date: 04Feb2009
References:
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.
  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
  • McPherson, J. 2011d. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Golden Saxifrage - Sedge Rich Seep Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=16005] (accessed February 08, 2012)
  • NYNHP [New York Natural Heritage Program]. 2009. New York Natural Heritage Conservation Guides. New York Natural Heritage Program, Albany, NY. [http://www.nynhp.org/] (accessed 2009)
  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. Eastman, L. A. Sneddon, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 2 volumes.
  • Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. 1995. A study of calcareous fen communities in Pennsylvania. Report to the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry, Forestry Advisory Services. 35 pp. plus appendices.
  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]