Invalid Unit Specified
CEGL006445 Carya cordiformis - Prunus serotina / Ageratina altissima Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence:
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Bitternut Hickory - Black Cherry / White Snakeroot Forest
Colloquial Name: Mid-Atlantic Terrace Floodplain Forest
Hierarchy Level: Association
Type Concept: This association is characterized by the dominance or codominance of Carya cordiformis on mid to high floodplain terraces. Soils are derived from alluvial deposits and consist of fine sandy loams and loamy fine sand. Codominant or associate canopy species include Quercus rubra, Juglans cinerea, Prunus serotina, Ulmus americana, Fraxinus americana, and Acer saccharinum. The canopy is usually somewhat open, occasionally closed, and about 20 m in height. The subcanopy cover is usually 20 to 30%. Composition of the subcanopy is similar to the canopy layer and may also include Acer rubrum and Acer saccharum. The tall-shrub and short-shrub layers are usually sparse and include occasional saplings of canopy and subcanopy species, as well as scattered individuals of Rosa multiflora, Lonicera morrowii, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus occidentalis, and Rubus flagellaris. The herbaceous layer is weedy, with invasive exotic species common or dominant, including Microstegium vimineum, Alliaria petiolata, and Glechoma hederacea. Common native species include Ageratina altissima var. altissima, Hydrophyllum virginianum, and Carex spp.
Diagnostic Characteristics: No Data Available
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: In West Virginia, two plots from floodplains of the Cheat and Potomac rivers classified as this association conform very well to the global description, with strong dominance by even-aged Carya cordiformis over weedy understories. Five additional plots from the Shavers Fork (of the Cheat) and Tygart Valley rivers are also related and may represent more natural vegetation, with codominance by Quercus rubra and Carya cordiformis in the canopy and fewer weeds in the understories. These five plots may justify a broadened concept for this association (CEGL006445), or they could be placed within a broadened concept for Quercus (rubra, alba) / Carpinus caroliniana - (Halesia tetraptera) / Maianthemum racemosum Forest (CEGL006462), with existing samples usually lacking Carya cordiformis, or they may justify description of a new association.
Similar NVC Types:
Quercus (rubra, alba) / Carpinus caroliniana - (Halesia tetraptera) / Maianthemum racemosum Forest, note: represents oak floodplain forests along the New, Gauley, and Bluestone rivers.
Physiognomy and Structure: No Data Available
Floristics: This association is characterized by the dominance or codominance of Carya cordiformis. Codominant or associate canopy species include Quercus rubra, Juglans cinerea, Prunus serotina, Ulmus americana, Ulmus rubra, Fraxinus americana, and occasionally Acer saccharinum. The canopy is usually somewhat open, occasionally closed, and about 20 m in height. The subcanopy cover is usually 20 to 30%. Composition of the subcanopy is similar to the canopy layer and may also include Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, and Carpinus caroliniana. The tall-shrub and short-shrub layers are usually sparse and include occasional saplings of canopy and subcanopy species, as well as scattered individuals of Rosa multiflora, Lonicera morrowii, Berberis thunbergii, Lindera benzoin, Cornus amomum, Rubus occidentalis, and Rubus flagellaris. The herbaceous layer is weedy, with invasive exotic species common or dominant, including Microstegium vimineum, Alliaria petiolata, and Glechoma hederacea. Common native species include Ageratina altissima var. altissima, Hydrophyllum virginianum, Matteuccia struthiopteris, Polygonum virginianum (= Persicaria virginiana), Claytonia virginica, and Carex spp.
Dynamics: Known sites are in formerly cleared and settled areas in the floodplain.
Environmental Description: This association occurs on mid to high floodplain terraces of mid- to large-sized rivers. It is currently documented from the Delaware and Upper Delaware, Potomac, and Cheat rivers and probably occurs on other rivers within the region. Flood frequency is unknown, but it is likely flooded less often than Platanus occidentalis and Acer saccharinum forests found on lower floodplain terraces. Soils on these stabilized terraces are derived from alluvial deposits and consist of fine sandy loams and loamy fine sand.
Geographic Range: This type is currently documented from northern New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, south to northern West Virginia.
Nations: US
States/Provinces: NJ, NY, PA, WV
US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
US Forest Service Ecoregions (2007)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Northeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 211    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Confidence Level: Moderate
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: G2G3
Greasons: This association is known from Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (UPDE) and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (DEWA), as well as from the Cheat and Tygart rivers in West Virginia. Much of this vegetation in West Virginia has been extirpated from agriculture, and agricultural runoff has contributed to substantial cover by invasive species. Known occurrences in West Virginia continue to face threats of conversion to agriculture.
Concept Lineage:
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Quercus alba - Carya spp. - Fraxinus americana Forest Alliance
Quercus alba - Carya glabra - Fraxinus americana Forest Alliance
Synonomy: = Carya cordiformis - Prunus serotina / Ageratina altissima Forest (Vanderhorst and Streets 2006)
= Carya cordiformis / Carpinus caroliniana / Verbesina alternifolia Forest [Bitternut Hickory Floodplain Forest] (Vanderhorst 2017a)
= Successional floodplain forest, aka Terrace floodplain forest (Vanderhorst 2001a)
Concept Author(s): G.S. Podniesinski
Author of Description: S.C. Gawler and E. Largay
Acknowledgements:
Version Date: 04Oct2006
References:
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.
  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
  • Perles, S. J. 2011. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Bitternut Hickory Floodplain Forest Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=30003] (accessed January 31, 2012)
  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. Eastman, L. A. Sneddon, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 2 volumes.
  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, M. Furedi, B. A. Eichelberger, A. Feldmann, G. Edinger, E. Eastman, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/133. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 370 pp.
  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001a. Plant community classification and mapping of the Camp Dawson Collective Training Area, Preston County, West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 101 pp.
  • Vanderhorst, J. 2017a. Wild vegetation of West Virginia: High floodplain forests and woodlands. West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. [http://wvdnr.gov/Wildlife/Factsheets/HighFloodplain.shtm]
  • Vanderhorst, J., and B. P. Streets. 2006. Vegetation classification and mapping of Camp Dawson Army Training Site, West Virginia: Second approximation. Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 83 pp.
  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.
  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]