Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Loblolly Pine - Southern Red Oak - White Oak / Longleaf Woodoats - Blackseed Speargrass Forest
Hierarchy Level: Association
Type Concept: This type is a nutrient-rich calcareous to subcalcareous, mesic to subxeric Coastal Plain forest or woodland documented from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, extending to North Carolina and possibly Virginia. Stands contain Quercus falcata and Quercus alba with Pinus taeda and Liquidambar styraciflua in the canopy. Other canopy components may include Carya glabra, Quercus nigra, Fraxinus americana, Quercus michauxii, Quercus velutina, and, on fire-suppressed sites, Fagus grandifolia. The subcanopy is dominated by Cornus florida. The shrub layer is dominated by Aesculus pavia, Symplocos tinctoria, Callicarpa americana, and Hamamelis virginiana. Dominant grasses include Chasmanthium sessiliflorum, Piptochaetium avenaceum, and Sorghastrum elliottii. In addition, Carex tenax is another ground-layer dominant. Hexastylis arifolia is the most characteristic forb.
Diagnostic Characteristics: No Data Available
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: This newly proposed type is distinguished from CEGL007225 by the codominance of loblolly pine and southern red oak, and from CEGL007246 by the abundance of white oak and presence of circumneutral soil indicator species Hexastylis, Aesculus, and Hamamelis. It is also distinguished from both of these other types by the more open canopy and grass dominated rather diverse ground-layer vegetation. We have suggested that these latter differences may be explained by fire history. Given the uncertainty in the current definition of CEGL007225 it is conceivable that its description could be expanded to cover fire maintained oak-hickory woodland including this new type.
Similar NVC Types:
Quercus alba - Carya glabra - Carya alba / Aesculus pavia Forest, note: lacking Pinus taeda as a codominant.
Quercus falcata - Quercus stellata - Carya alba / Vaccinium spp. Coastal Plain Forest, note: with Quercus alba and circumneutral soil indicator species.
Physiognomy and Structure: No Data Available
Floristics: Quercus falcata and Quercus alba with Pinus taeda and Liquidambar styraciflua dominate the canopy. Other canopy components may include Carya glabra, Quercus nigra, Fraxinus americana, Quercus michauxii, Quercus velutina, and, on fire-suppressed sites, Fagus grandifolia. The subcanopy is dominated by Cornus florida and may also contain Ulmus alata, Ilex opaca, Symplocos tinctoria, and Carya cordiformis. The shrub layer is dominated by Aesculus pavia, Symplocos tinctoria, Callicarpa americana, and Hamamelis virginiana with Vaccinium arboreum, Vaccinium elliottii, Vaccinium tenellum, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Euonymus americanus, and Toxicodendron pubescens also common. Dominant grasses include Chasmanthium sessiliflorum, Piptochaetium avenaceum, and Sorghastrum elliottii. In addition, Carex tenax may also contribute significant cover in the ground layer. Hexastylis arifolia is the most characteristic forb. Other herbaceous species include Eupatorium album, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Andropogon gyrans, Dichanthelium oligosanthes, Dichanthelium boscii, Dichanthelium commutatum, Dichanthelium laxiflorum, Elephantopus tomentosus, Chimaphila maculata, Tragia urens, Scutellaria elliptica, Galium uniflorum, Galium pilosum, Clitoria mariana, Centrosema virginianum, Acalypha gracilens, Solidago odora, Pityopsis graminifolia, Cyperus plukenetii, Andropogon virginicus, Dichanthelium strigosum, Panicum anceps (= var. rhizomatum), Eupatorium rotundifolium, and Saccharum alopecuroidum. Woody vines, including Smilax pumila and Smilax bona-nox, may also be an important stand component.
Dynamics: This type is perpetuated by occasional fires (possibly at 5- to 20-year intervals) that provide opportunities for regeneration of Pinus taeda, perpetuate regeneration of oak and hickory species and maintain ground-layer diversity and grass cover. In the absence of fire, succession leads towards increasingly closed forests perhaps accompanied by a compositional shift towards Fagus grandifolia dominance. With more frequent fires the vegetation could shift towards subxeric longleaf pine types with increasing representation of longleaf pine-related ground-layer plants.
Environmental Description: This type is found in nutrient-rich calcareous to subcalcareous, mesic to subxeric Coastal Plain habitats.
Geographic Range: This association is found in coastal South Carolina and possibly in coastal Georgia.
States/Provinces: GA?, SC
|US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)|
Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Confident or certain
Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Confident or certain
Confidence Level: Low - Poorly Documented
Confidence Level Comments:
Greasons: More information is needed on the validity of this association before it can be adequately ranked.
Synonomy: = Pinus taeda - Quercus falcata - Quercus alba / Chasmanthium sessiliflorum - Piptochaetium avenaceum Woodland (Glitzenstein and Streng 2004)
Concept Author(s): M. Pyne after Glitzenstein and Streng
Author of Description: M. Pyne
Version Date: 19Apr2004
- Glitzenstein, J. S., and D. R. Streng. 2004. Evaluating the NatureServe preliminary plant community classification for Francis Marion National Forest. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Plus appendices and data.
- Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.