Invalid Unit Specified
Association Detail Report: CEGL004091
Pinus taeda - Quercus falcata - Quercus alba / Chasmanthium sessiliflorum - Piptochaetium avenaceum Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
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Translated Name:Loblolly Pine - Southern Red Oak - White Oak / Longleaf Woodoats - Blackseed Speargrass Forest
Colloquial Name:
This type is a nutrient-rich calcareous to subcalcareous, mesic to subxeric Coastal Plain forest or woodland documented from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, extending to North Carolina and possibly Virginia. Stands contain Quercus falcata and Quercus alba with Pinus taeda and Liquidambar styraciflua in the canopy. Other canopy components may include Carya glabra, Quercus nigra, Fraxinus americana, Quercus michauxii, Quercus velutina, and, on fire-suppressed sites, Fagus grandifolia. The subcanopy is dominated by Cornus florida. The shrub layer is dominated by Aesculus pavia, Symplocos tinctoria, Callicarpa americana, and Hamamelis virginiana. Dominant grasses include Chasmanthium sessiliflorum, Piptochaetium avenaceum, and Sorghastrum elliottii. In addition, Carex tenax is another ground-layer dominant. Hexastylis arifolia is the most characteristic forb.
No Data Available
This newly proposed type is distinguished from CEGL007225 by the codominance of loblolly pine and southern red oak, and from CEGL007246 by the abundance of white oak and presence of circumneutral soil indicator species Hexastylis, Aesculus, and Hamamelis. It is also distinguished from both of these other types by the more open canopy and grass dominated rather diverse ground-layer vegetation. We have suggested that these latter differences may be explained by fire history. Given the uncertainty in the current definition of CEGL007225 it is conceivable that its description could be expanded to cover fire maintained oak-hickory woodland including this new type.
Synonomy: = Pinus taeda - Quercus falcata - Quercus alba / Chasmanthium sessiliflorum - Piptochaetium avenaceum Woodland (Glitzenstein and Streng 2004)

Related Type Name:This type is most similar to Quercus alba - Carya glabra - Carya alba / Aesculus pavia Forest (CEGL007225). There is also a resemblance to Quercus falcata - Quercus stellata - Carya alba / Vaccinium spp. Coastal Plain Forest (CEGL007246).

Short Citation:
  • Glitzenstein and Streng 2004
  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.
States/Provinces:GA?, SC
Nations:US
Range:This association is found in coastal South Carolina and possibly in coastal Georgia.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name:Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code:232   Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
Section Name:Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code:232C     Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
No Data Available
Quercus falcata and Quercus alba with Pinus taeda and Liquidambar styraciflua dominate the canopy. Other canopy components may include Carya glabra, Quercus nigra, Fraxinus americana, Quercus michauxii, Quercus velutina, and, on fire-suppressed sites, Fagus grandifolia. The subcanopy is dominated by Cornus florida and may also contain Ulmus alata, Ilex opaca, Symplocos tinctoria, and Carya cordiformis. The shrub layer is dominated by Aesculus pavia, Symplocos tinctoria, Callicarpa americana, and Hamamelis virginiana with Vaccinium arboreum, Vaccinium elliottii, Vaccinium tenellum, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Euonymus americanus, and Toxicodendron pubescens also common. Dominant grasses include Chasmanthium sessiliflorum, Piptochaetium avenaceum, and Sorghastrum elliottii. In addition, Carex tenax may also contribute significant cover in the ground layer. Hexastylis arifolia is the most characteristic forb. Other herbaceous species include Eupatorium album, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Andropogon gyrans, Dichanthelium oligosanthes, Dichanthelium boscii, Dichanthelium commutatum, Dichanthelium laxiflorum, Elephantopus tomentosus, Chimaphila maculata, Tragia urens, Scutellaria elliptica, Galium uniflorum, Galium pilosum, Clitoria mariana, Centrosema virginianum, Acalypha gracilens, Solidago odora, Pityopsis graminifolia, Cyperus plukenetii, Andropogon virginicus, Dichanthelium strigosum, Panicum anceps (= var. rhizomatum), Eupatorium rotundifolium, and Saccharum alopecuroidum. Woody vines, including Smilax pumila and Smilax bona-nox, may also be an important stand component.
This type is found in nutrient-rich calcareous to subcalcareous, mesic to subxeric Coastal Plain habitats.
Low - Poorly Documented
This type is perpetuated by occasional fires (possibly at 5- to 20-year intervals) that provide opportunities for regeneration of Pinus taeda, perpetuate regeneration of oak and hickory species and maintain ground-layer diversity and grass cover. In the absence of fire, succession leads towards increasingly closed forests perhaps accompanied by a compositional shift towards Fagus grandifolia dominance. With more frequent fires the vegetation could shift towards subxeric longleaf pine types with increasing representation of longleaf pine-related ground-layer plants.
Authors:
M. Pyne      Version Date: 19Apr2004


References:
  • Glitzenstein, J. S., and D. R. Streng. 2004. Evaluating the NatureServe preliminary plant community classification for Francis Marion National Forest. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Plus appendices and data.
  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

Date Accessed:

To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

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About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Association level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

U.S. Government
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Department of the Interior (USDI)
  • Forest Service (FS) - Chair
  • National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS)
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)
  • U.S. Navy (NAVY)
  • Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
  • National Park Service (NPS)
  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Non U.S. Government
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  • Ecological Society of America (ESA)

Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)