Invalid Unit Specified
CEGL005014 Fagus grandifolia - Quercus spp. - Acer rubrum - Juglans nigra Floodplain Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence:
Collapse All::Expand All
Common (Translated Scientific) Name: American Beech - Oak species - Red Maple - Black Walnut Floodplain Forest
Colloquial Name: Beech - Mixed Hardwood Floodplain Forest
Hierarchy Level: Association
Type Concept: This beech - hardwoods floodplain forest community is found in the central United States and adjacent Canada. Stands occur on high terraces of small stream floodplains. Soils are well-drained and at least partially alluvial in origin, flooding only occasionally. The closed, deciduous tree canopy has a mixed set of species, with few dominants. Typical constants include Acer saccharum, Carya cordiformis, Celtis occidentalis, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus americana, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus rubra, Tilia americana, Ulmus americana, and Ulmus rubra among the more typical upland species, and Acer negundo, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Platanus occidentalis among the more typical bottomland species. Perhaps the more dominant include Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Liriodendron tulipifera, Platanus occidentalis, and Ulmus americana. The tall shrubs, subcanopy trees, and vine species include Carpinus caroliniana, Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Toxicodendron radicans. A wide variety of herbaceous species are found.
Diagnostic Characteristics: No Data Available
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: This type can be difficult to distinguish from upland beech - maple forests or lower terrace floodplain forests. Vegetation will probably need to be linked to physical site characteristics in order to accurately identify the type, including features such as small stream terraces, presence of occasional, though not annual, flooding, and some alluvial material (Anderson 1996). Disturbed sites may often be more dominated by the wetter and more rapidly colonizing floodplain species, such as Acer saccharinum or Populus deltoides (Anderson 1996). A related mesic hardwood floodplain type with dominance of Acer and Carya rather than Fagus is the Acer saccharum - Carya cordiformis / Asimina triloba Floodplain Forest (CEGL005035). Attribution of Ontario to this type may be stretching this type too far north. Ontario crosswalk may better fit with Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana / Acer spicatum / Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest (CEGL006636) and/or Acer saccharum - Tilia americana / Acer pensylvanicum / Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest (CEGL006637). The distribution in central Indiana and western Ohio should be reviewed.
Similar NVC Types:
Fagus grandifolia - Acer saccharum - Liriodendron tulipifera Unglaciated Forest, note: unglaciated upland beech-maple.
Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba - (Quercus michauxii) - Acer rubrum Flatwoods Forest, note: beech flatwoods type.
Acer saccharinum - Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Ulmus americana Floodplain Forest, note:
Acer saccharum - Carya cordiformis / Asimina triloba Floodplain Forest, note:
Physiognomy and Structure: No Data Available
Floristics: The closed, deciduous tree canopy has a mixed set of species, with few dominants. Typical constants include Acer saccharum, Carya cordiformis, Celtis occidentalis, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus americana, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus rubra, Tilia americana, Ulmus americana, and Ulmus rubra among the more typical upland species, and Acer negundo, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Platanus occidentalis among the more typical bottomland species. Perhaps the more dominant include Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Liriodendron tulipifera, Platanus occidentalis, and Ulmus americana. The tall shrubs, subcanopy trees, and vine species include Carpinus caroliniana, Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Toxicodendron radicans (Anderson 1996). A wide variety of mesic to wet-mesic herbaceous species are found, and Anderson (1996) presents a fairly comprehensive list.
Dynamics: These forests experience periodic flooding.
Environmental Description: This community is found on high terraces of small stream floodplains. Soils are well-drained to moderately drained and at least partially alluvial in origin, flooding only occasionally (Anderson 1996). This community is most common in small, headwater valleys that flood for durations short enough to allow for persistence of mesic species. Downstream, this type can be found where the natural levee development is high enough to allow mesic species to persist. This type may then be surrounded on the river side by wetter floodplain types, and on the other side by backwater swamps (Anderson 1996).
Geographic Range: This beech - hardwoods floodplain forest community is found in the central United States and adjacent Canada, ranging from Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana and Ontario, east to Maryland and possibly Pennsylvania.
Nations: CA, US
States/Provinces: IN, KY, OH, ON, PA?, TN?, WV
US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Confidence Level: Low - Poorly Documented
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: G2G3
Greasons: There are probably fewer than 100 occurrences of this community rangewide. Currently 23 occurrences are documented from Indiana (where it is ranked S1) and Ohio (S?). It is also reported from Pennsylvania (S?), and it may occur in Ontario. There are probably fewer than 1000 acres of this community rangewide. Currently 65 acres are documented from 3 occurrences in Indiana. This community is documented from 12 ecoregion subsections.
Concept Lineage:
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy: = Mixed Floodplain Forests (Anderson 1996)
> Moist - Fresh Sugar Maple - Black Maple Deciduous Forest Type (Lee et al. 1998)
> Moist - Fresh Sugar Maple - Lowland Ash Deciduous Forest Type (Lee et al. 1998)
> Moist - Fresh Sugar Maple - White Elm Deciduous Forest Type (Lee et al. 1998)
> Moist - Fresh Sugar Maple - Yellow Birch Deciduous Forest Type (Lee et al. 1998)
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
Author of Description: D. Faber-Langendoen
Acknowledgements:
Version Date: 25Jun1998
References:
  • Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.
  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.
  • Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.
  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.