Invalid Unit Specified
Association Detail Report: CEGL007211
Fagus grandifolia - Quercus nigra Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
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Translated Name:American Beech - Water Oak Forest
Colloquial Name:Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Mesic Beech - Water Oak Forest
Mesic mixed hardwood forests of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain dominated by Fagus grandifolia and Quercus nigra with limited Quercus alba. This community grades into drier zones in which Quercus falcata, Pinus echinata, and Pinus taeda are common. Vaccinium sp. and Arundinaria gigantea are important in the shrub layer. An additional example has a canopy dominated by Fagus grandifolia, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus nigra. The understory is diverse and contains Ostrya virginiana, Carpinus caroliniana, and Cornus florida. Symplocos tinctoria and Callicarpa americana are common shrubs in this example. Another occurrence of this vegetation which has been documented from Richland County in South Carolina is dominated by Fagus grandifolia, Quercus nigra, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Other canopy species that may be present include Nyssa sylvatica, Quercus alba, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus michauxii, Quercus pagoda, Ulmus alata, Acer rubrum, and Liriodendron tulipifera. Pinus taeda may also be present particularly in occurrences with a history of disturbance. Ilex opaca dominates the subcanopy with Carpinus caroliniana and Cornus florida present. The well-developed shrub layer contains a variety of species, including Euonymus americanus, Rhododendron canescens, Vaccinium elliottii, Vaccinium pallidum, Gaylussacia dumosa, Gaylussacia frondosa, Symplocos tinctoria, Arundinaria gigantea, Asimina triloba, Callicarpa americana, and others. The herbaceous layer ranges from sparse to moderately well-developed and among the species that occur are Osmunda cinnamomea, Polystichum acrostichoides, Mitchella repens, Chasmanthium sessiliflorum (= Chasmanthium laxum var. sessiliflorum), Malaxis unifolia, Arisaema triphyllum, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Dichanthelium boscii, Goodyera pubescens, Carex debilis, Carex abscondita, and Tipularia discolor. The vine/liana stratum is sparse and can contain Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Smilax bona-nox, Toxicodendron radicans, Bignonia capreolata, and Smilax tamnoides (= Smilax hispida) among others. The South Carolina example occurs on middle to lower convex slopes. Examples of this association seem to be extremely limited, as most similar sites have substantial amounts of Quercus alba. Vegetation which may pertain to this association from Chowan and Gates counties in North Carolina is described as being dominated by Fagus grandifolia, with Quercus nigra important on the moister sands.
No Data Available
Examples of this association seem to be extremely limited, as most similar sites have substantial amounts of Quercus alba.
Synonomy: = Fagus grandifolia - Quercus (alba, michauxii, pagoda) / Stewartia malacodendron Forest (Fleming and Patterson 2003)
= Fagus grandifolia - Quercus nigra Forest (TNC 1998b) [Plots 1-45; 1-51; 2-17; 2-23; 2-37; 2-55; 2-56]

Related Type Name:

Short Citation:
  • Fleming and Patterson 2003
  • Fleming and Patterson 2011a
  • Fleming and Patterson 2011b
  • Fleming et al. 2001
  • Fleming et al. 2006
  • Fleming et al. 2007b
  • Fleming pers. comm.
  • Frost et al. 1990
  • Nelson 1986
  • Peet et al. unpubl. data
  • Schafale 2012
  • Schafale and Weakley 1990
  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.
  • TNC 1998b
States/Provinces:NC, SC, VA
Nations:US
Range:These forests are currently known from the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name:Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code:232   Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
Section Name:Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code:232B     Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
No Data Available
Stands of these mesic mixed hardwood forests are dominated by Fagus grandifolia and Quercus nigra, with limited Quercus alba. Other canopy species that may be present include Nyssa sylvatica, Quercus alba, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus michauxii, Quercus pagoda, Quercus falcata, Ulmus alata, Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Liriodendron tulipifera, the latter two of which may share dominance. Pinus taeda may also be present particularly in occurrences with a history of disturbance. The understory is diverse and may contain Ilex opaca (which may dominate), Ostrya virginiana, Carpinus caroliniana, Oxydendrum arboreum, and Cornus florida. The well-developed shrub layer contains a variety of species, including Symplocos tinctoria, Callicarpa americana, Arundinaria gigantea, Euonymus americanus, Rhododendron canescens, Vaccinium elliottii, Vaccinium pallidum, Gaylussacia dumosa, Gaylussacia frondosa, Stewartia malacodendron, Styrax grandifolius, Asimina triloba, and others. The herbaceous layer ranges from sparse to moderately well-developed and among the species that occur are Osmunda cinnamomea, Polystichum acrostichoides, Mitchella repens, Chasmanthium sessiliflorum (= Chasmanthium laxum var. sessiliflorum), Malaxis unifolia, Arisaema triphyllum, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Dichanthelium boscii, Goodyera pubescens, Carex debilis, Carex abscondita, and Tipularia discolor. The vine/liana stratum is sparse and can contain Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Smilax bona-nox, Toxicodendron radicans, Bignonia capreolata, and Smilax tamnoides (= Smilax hispida), among others. The exotic species Lonicera japonica may be present in examples of these forests. Vegetation which may pertain to this association from Chowan and Gates counties in North Carolina is described as being dominated by Fagus grandifolia, with Quercus nigra important on the moister sands.
These forests occur on mesic slopes and upland flats in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (TNC 1998b). In Congaree Swamp National Monument, this forest type occurs in the uplands of the northwestern portion of the park, on middle to lower convex slopes (TNC 1998b). This community grades into drier zones in which Quercus falcata, Pinus echinata, and Pinus taeda are common. This vegetation occurs on slight rises in nonriverine swamps (swamp islands). These small-patch occurrences range throughout eastern North Carolina and Virginia. Examples are documented at Great Dismal Swamp NWR and Northwest River, Virginia.
Moderate
In Virginia, this type often grades into nonriverine wet hardwood forests with more hydrophytic oaks (G.P. Fleming pers. comm. 2004).
Authors:
J. Teague      Version Date: 31Jan2005


References:
  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.
  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011b. Analysis of Coastal Plain / Outer Piedmont bottomlands and non-alluvial wetlands in Virginia, 400 plots. In-house analysis, January 2011. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.
  • Frost, C. C., H. E. LeGrand, Jr., and R. E. Schneider. 1990. Regional inventory for critical natural areas, wetland ecosystems, and endangered species habitats of the Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine region: Phase 1. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh, NC. 454 pp.
  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.
  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.
  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. [1998]b. Classification of the vegetation of Congaree Swamp National Monument. Report to BRD-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. The Nature Conservancy, Southern Conservation Science, Chapel Hill, NC. 67 pp.


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

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Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

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About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Association level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

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Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)