Invalid Unit Specified
Association Detail Report: CEGL004117
Schoenoplectus pungens - Fimbristylis (castanea, caroliniana) Marsh

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
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Translated Name:Common Threesquare - (Marsh Fimbry, Carolina Fimbry) Marsh
Colloquial Name:Mid-Atlantic Interdunal Swale
This interdunal swale community of the Eastern Shore of Virginia and Maryland is characterized by dense cover of Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens) and/or Spartina patens, with Fimbristylis castanea or Fimbristylis caroliniana. There is usually shallow standing water present in these swales in the spring, when Schoenoplectus pungens or Spartina patens is generally dominant with few other associates except species of Eleocharis. By late summer a number of other species such as Fimbristylis castanea and Sabatia stellaris contribute more substantial cover. Other herbs contribute very little to the overall vegetative cover. These associated species include Andropogon virginicus, Andropogon glomeratus, Eleocharis rostellata, Phragmites australis, Pluchea foetida, Pluchea odorata, Cyperus filicinus, Juncus scirpoides, Hydrocotyle umbellata, Eleocharis parvula, Panicum amarum, Fimbristylis autumnalis, Sabatia stellaris, Ptilimnium capillaceum, Fuirena pumila, and Juncus canadensis. Diagnostic species are Schoenoplectus pungens and Fimbristylis castanea. Related vegetation of the Atlantic Coast from North Carolina southward is accommodated under ~Fimbristylis castanea - Schoenoplectus pungens Marsh (CEGL003790)$$.
No Data Available
This association is similar to Juncus (dichotomus, scirpoides) - Drosera intermedia Wet Meadow (CEGL004111) in environment, but lacks Xyris spp., Pogonia spp., and Lycopodiella appressa (= Lycopodium appressum). It may represent a successional phase or be slightly more brackish. Subsequent vegetation classification and mapping of adjoining Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge noted the presence of a variant occurring in shallow interdunal ponds. This variant, referred to as the Eleocharis spp. - Schoenoplectus pungens variant, differs from the typic association in its absence of Fimbristylis spp., lower diversity, and dominance of Eleocharis albida and/or Eleocharis quadrangulata and Schoenoplectus pungens. Associated species include Panicum rigidulum, Panicum virgatum, Proserpinaca palustris, and others.
Synonomy: = Fimbristylis (castanea, caroliniana) - Scirpus pungens Herbaceous Vegetation (Berdine 1998)
? Juncus scirpoides-Scirpus pungens interdunal wetland association (McAvoy and Clancy 1994) [Delaware.]
< Fresh marsh community (Hill 1986) [Assateague Island.]
< Fresh marsh community (Higgins et al. 1971) [Assateague Island.]
? Wet community of barrier flats (Travis and Godfrey 1976) [North Carolina.]

Related Type Name:

Short Citation:
  • Berdine 1998
  • Brock et al. 2007
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group n.d.
  • Fleming and Patterson 2011a
  • Fleming et al. 2001
  • Harrison 2004
  • Harrison 2011
  • Higgins et al. 1971
  • Hill 1986
  • McAvoy and Clancy 1994
  • Peet et al. unpubl. data
  • Schafale 2000
  • Sneddon et al. 1996
  • TNC 1995c
  • TNC 1997a
  • Travis and Godfrey 1976
States/Provinces:MD, VA
Nations:US
Range:This association is currently described from Maryland and Virginia.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name:Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code:232   Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
Section Name:Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code:232B     Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
No Data Available
This association is characterized by dense cover of Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens) or Spartina patens in association with Fimbristylis castanea or Fimbristylis caroliniana. In early spring, Schoenoplectus pungens and/or Spartina patens is usually dominant, with few other associates visible. By later summer as the water table drops, additional species emerge, including abundant Fimbristylis castanea and Sabatia stellaris. Cover and composition of associated species are variable but in aggregate include Andropogon virginicus, Andropogon glomeratus, Eleocharis rostellata, Phragmites australis, Pluchea foetida, Pluchea odorata, Cyperus filicinus, Juncus scirpoides, Hydrocotyle umbellata, Eleocharis parvula, Panicum amarum, Fimbristylis autumnalis, Sabatia stellaris, Ptilimnium capillaceum, Fuirena pumila, and Juncus canadensis.
This association is characterized by seasonally wet maritime interdunal depressions, commonly known as "interdunal swales." There is usually standing water present in these swales in the spring. The Eleocharis spp. - Schoenoplectus pungens variant of this association occurs in similar habitat but tends to be flooded for a longer period of the year. Although this association occurs in swales, it occurs in association with the highest dunes on the island and so has a higher relative elevation than any other island wetlands. Average elevation of this association at Assateague Island National Seashore is 1.23 m, as calculated from lidar-derived data of Brock et al. (2007).
Moderate
No Data Available
Authors:
L.A. Sneddon and A. Berdine      Version Date: 06Sep2013


References:
  • Berdine, M. A. 1998. Maryland vegetation classification. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD.
  • Brock, J. C., C. W. Wright, M. Patterson, A. Naeghandi, and L. J. Travers. 2007. EAARL bare earth topography - Assateague Island National Seashore. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2007-1176. [http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1176/start.html]
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.
  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.
  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
  • Higgins, E. A. T., R. D. Rappleye, and R. G. Brown. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. University of Maryland Experiment Station Bulletin A-172. 70 pp.
  • Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.
  • McAvoy, W., and K. Clancy. 1994. Community classification and mapping criteria for Category I interdunal swales and coastal plain pond wetlands in Delaware. Final Report submitted to the Division of Water Resources in the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control. 47 pp.
  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
  • Sneddon, L., M. Anderson, and K. Metzler. 1996. Community alliances and elements of the Eastern Region. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Heritage Task Force, Boston, MA. 235 pp.
  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1995c. NBS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Vegetation classification of Assateague Island National Seashore. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.
  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1997a. Vegetation classification of Assateague Island National Seashore and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge. Report to the NBS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. The Nature Conservancy. Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.
  • Travis, R. W., and P. J. Godfrey. 1976. Interactions of plant communities and oceanic overwash on the manipulated barrier islands of Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina. Pages 777-780 in: Proceedings of the First Conference on Scientific Research in the National Parks, Volume II.


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

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Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

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About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Association level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

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Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)