Invalid Unit Specified
Association Detail Report: CEGL006282
Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium (angustifolium, pallidum) Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
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Translated Name:Chestnut Oak - (Northern Red Oak, Black Oak) / (Lowbush Blueberry, Blue Ridge Blueberry) Forest
Colloquial Name:Lower New England High Slope Chestnut Oak Forest
This dry to xeric oak-heath forest of central and southern New England ranges south to the northern Piedmont and central Appalachian Mountains. It occurs on upper slopes and ridgetops with thin, nutrient-poor, acidic soils. Windthrow, fire and ice damage are common natural disturbances. The canopy is closed to partially open and is dominated by Quercus prinus, which can be codominant with Quercus rubra. Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, and Acer rubrum are common associates, with other less frequent trees including Betula lenta, Quercus coccinea, Amelanchier arborea, Pinus rigida, and Pinus strobus. Sassafras albidum, Cornus florida, and Nyssa sylvatica can be minor associates at the southern and western portions of the range. The low-shrub layer is well-developed and comprised chiefly of ericaceous species, including Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, Gaylussacia baccata, or Kalmia angustifolia. A tall-shrub layer is often lacking but when present may include Castanea dentata, Kalmia latifolia, Viburnum acerifolium, Hamamelis virginiana, Quercus ilicifolia, and Viburnum prunifolium. Ilex montana, Rhododendron prinophyllum, and Menziesia pilosa are minor shrub associates at the southern end of the range. The herbaceous layer is of sparse to moderate cover, depending on shrub cover, and may include Carex pensylvanica, Deschampsia flexuosa, Danthonia spicata, Ageratina altissima var. altissima, Antennaria plantaginifolia, Aralia nudicaulis, Aureolaria laevigata, Gaultheria procumbens, Chimaphila maculata, Carex rosea, Carex swanii, Carex pensylvanica, Corydalis sempervirens, Comandra umbellata, Cypripedium acaule, Dryopteris marginalis, Epigaea repens, Goodyera pubescens, Hieracium venosum, Lycopodium clavatum, Medeola virginiana, Melampyrum lineare, Monotropa uniflora, Potentilla canadensis, Pteridium aquilinum, and Uvularia sessilifolia.
No Data Available
This community type is closely related to other oak / heath. It is distinguished by the presence of northern species, such as Pinus strobus and Vaccinium angustifolium, and its general lack of Southern Appalachian species, such as Gaylussacia ursina, Leucothoe recurva, and Galax urceolata. In comparison to Quercus prinus - Quercus (alba, coccinea) / Viburnum acerifolium - (Kalmia latifolia) Forest (CEGL005023), it lacks Oxydendrum arboreum, Pinus echinata, and Pinus virginiana. It occupies poorer sites and has a more abundant ericaceous shrub component than Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Hamamelis virginiana Forest (CEGL006057). The Chestnut Oak / Low-Elevation Subtype of Virginia intergrades with the more southern Quercus (prinus, coccinea) / Kalmia latifolia / (Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens) Forest (CEGL006271) throughout west-central Virginia. A well-developed Piedmont example of the Chestnut Oak / Low-Elevation Subtype is described by Allard and Leonard (1943). The Chestnut Oak - Northern Red Oak / High-Elevation Subtype of Virginia is similar to Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Vaccinium pallidum - (Rhododendron periclymenoides) Forest (CEGL008523) of high-elevation granitic terrain on the northern Blue Ridge, but lacks Quercus velutina, Rhododendron periclymenoides, and the suite of low-cover herbaceous species characteristic of mineral soil microhabitats in that unit. The recognition of global subtypes equivalent to two distinct state community types is well supported by quantitative analysis of compositional and environmental data. Further study may support the elevation of these subtypes to full association-level status in the USNVC.
Synonomy: ? Quercus (prinus, rubra) / Calamagrostis porteri Ridgetop Forest (Walton et al. 1997)
= Quercus montana / Kalmia latifolia / Gaultheria procumbens Association (Rawinski et al. 1994)
= Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium angustifolium Forest (Fleming and Patterson 2009a)
= Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium angustifolium Forest (Fleming and Taverna 2006)
? Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Acer pensylvanicum Association: Betula lenta / Ilex montana Subassociation (Fleming and Moorhead 1996)
> Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Kalmia latifolia / Vaccinium angustifolium - Gaultheria procumbens Forest (Fleming and Coulling 2001)
? CNE dry hardwood forest on acidic bedrock or till (Rawinski 1984a)
< Chestnut Oak: 44 (Eyre 1980) [typical variant and chestnut oak - northern red oak variant.]
? Oak - Chestnut (Keever 1973) [only tree spp.]
< SNE dry oak/pine forests on acidic bedrock or till (Rawinski 1984a)
? SNE mesic oak/pine forest on acidic bedrock or till (Rawinski 1984a)

Related Type Name:This community type (CEGL006282) is related to other oak / heath types. It is distinguished by the presence of northern species, such as Pinus strobus and Vaccinium angustifolium, and its general lack of Southern Appalachian species, such as Gaylussacia ursina, Leucothoe recurva, and Galax urceolata. In comparison to Quercus prinus - Quercus (alba, coccinea) / Viburnum acerifolium - (Kalmia latifolia) Forest (CEGL005023), it lacks Oxydendrum arboreum, Pinus echinata, and Pinus virginiana. It occupies poorer sites and has a more abundant ericaceous shrub component than Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Hamamelis virginiana Forest (CEGL006057).

Short Citation:
  • Allard and Leonard 1943
  • Breden 1989
  • Breden et al. 2001
  • Clancy 1996
  • Collins and Anderson 1994
  • Coxe 2009
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group n.d.
  • Edinger et al. 2002
  • Edinger et al. 2014
  • Enser 1999
  • Enser and Lundgren 2006
  • Eyre 1980
  • Fike 1999
  • Fleming and Coulling 2001
  • Fleming and Moorhead 1996
  • Fleming and Moorhead 2000
  • Fleming and Patterson 2009a
  • Fleming and Patterson 2009b
  • Fleming and Patterson 2011a
  • Fleming and Taverna 2006
  • Fleming et al. 2001
  • Fleming et al. 2006
  • Fleming et al. 2007b
  • Gawler 2002
  • Gawler and Cutko 2010
  • Harrison 2004
  • Harrison 2011
  • Harshberger 1919
  • Hunt 1997a
  • Kasmer et al. 1984
  • Keever 1973
  • Metzler and Barrett 1996
  • Metzler and Barrett 2001
  • Metzler and Barrett 2006
  • Metzler et al. 2009
  • Nerurkar 1974
  • Overlease 1978
  • Overlease 1987
  • Pearson 1979
  • Perles et al. 2007
  • Perles et al. 2008
  • Podniesinski et al. 2005b
  • Rawinski 1984a
  • Rawinski et al. 1994
  • Rawinski et al. 1996
  • Russell and Schuyler 1988
  • Shreve et al. 1910
  • Sperduto 1997a
  • Sperduto 2000a
  • Sperduto and Nichols 2004
  • Swain and Kearsley 2000
  • Swain and Kearsley 2001
  • Thompson 1996
  • Thompson and Sorenson 2000
  • Thompson and Sorenson 2005
  • Vanderhorst 2000b
  • Walton et al. 1997
States/Provinces:CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, WV?
Nations:US
Range:This community ranges from southern Maine through the Central Appalachians to higher elevations in Virginia and West Virginia, and north more locally in the Piedmont (an estimated 215,000 square km based on approximate acreage of subsections of occurrence).
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name:Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code:221   Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
Section Name:St. Lawrence and Champlain Valley Section
Section Code:212E     Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
No Data Available
The canopy is closed to partially open and dominated by Quercus prinus, which can be codominant with Quercus rubra. Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, and Acer rubrum are common associates, with other less frequent trees including Betula lenta, Quercus coccinea, Amelanchier arborea, Pinus rigida, and Pinus strobus. Sassafras albidum, Cornus florida, and Nyssa sylvatica can be minor associates at the southern and western portions of the range. The low-shrub layer is well-developed and comprised chiefly of ericaceous species, including Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, Gaylussacia baccata, or Kalmia angustifolia. A tall-shrub layer is often lacking but when present may include Castanea dentata, Kalmia latifolia, Viburnum acerifolium, Hamamelis virginiana, Quercus ilicifolia, and Viburnum prunifolium. Ilex montana, Rhododendron prinophyllum, and Menziesia pilosa are minor shrub associates at the southern end of the range. The herbaceous layer is of sparse to moderate cover, depending on shrub cover, and may include Carex pensylvanica, Deschampsia flexuosa, Danthonia spicata, Ageratina altissima var. altissima, Antennaria plantaginifolia, Aralia nudicaulis, Aureolaria laevigata, Gaultheria procumbens, Chimaphila maculata, Carex rosea, Carex swanii, Carex pensylvanica, Corydalis sempervirens, Comandra umbellata, Cypripedium acaule, Dryopteris marginalis, Epigaea repens, Goodyera pubescens, Hieracium venosum, Lycopodium clavatum, Medeola virginiana, Melampyrum lineare, Monotropa uniflora, Potentilla canadensis, Pteridium aquilinum, and Uvularia sessilifolia.
This forest generally occurs on xeric upper slopes and ridgetops and steep sideslopes with shallow, acidic, rocky, infertile soils. Windthrow, fire, and ice storms are common natural disturbances in these habitats.
Moderate
Periodic fire is likely an important ecological factor in oak regeneration.
Authors:
G. Fleming, P. Coulling, S.L. Neid, L.A. Sneddon and S.C. Gawler      Version Date: 19Jun2006


References:
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  • Harshberger, J. W. 1919. Slope exposure and the distribution of plants in eastern Pennsylvania. Geographical Society of Philadelphia Bulletin 17:53-61.
  • Hunt, D. 1997a. Long Island oak forest project: Classification justification. Unpublished materials. New York Natural Heritage Program, Latham, NY.
  • Kasmer, J., P. Kasmer, and S. Ware. 1984. Edaphic factors and vegetation in the Piedmont lowland of southeastern Pennsylvania. Castanea 49:147-157.
  • Keever, C. 1973. Distribution of major forest species in southeastern Pennsylvania. Ecological Monographs 43:303-327.
  • Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
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  • Overlease, W. R. 1987. 150 years of vegetation change in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Bartonia 53:1-12.
  • Pearson, P. R., Jr. 1979. Vegetation reconnaissance of three woodland stands on Buckingham Mountain, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Bartonia 46:71-80.
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USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

Date Accessed:

To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

About spatial standards:
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About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Association level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

U.S. Government
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Department of the Interior (USDI)
  • Forest Service (FS) - Chair
  • National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS)
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)
  • U.S. Navy (NAVY)
  • Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
  • National Park Service (NPS)
  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Non U.S. Government
  • NatureServe (NS)
  • Ecological Society of America (ESA)

Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)