Invalid Unit Specified
Association Detail Report: CEGL002385
Symplocarpus foetidus - Mixed Forbs Seep

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
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Translated Name:Skunk-cabbage - Mixed Forbs Seep
Colloquial Name:Skunk-cabbage - Mixed Forbs Seep
This community is found throughout the upper midwestern region of the United States and adjacent Canada, ranging to the Northeast, where it develops around spring heads and in broader areas of groundwater discharge. The peat layer is typically less than 0.4 m deep. Tree and shrub cover may vary, particularly from overhanging upland trees, but trees and shrubs rooted in the stand are less than 25% cover. Forbs dominate the community. Symplocarpus foetidus and Angelica atropurpurea are the dominant and indicative species in the Midwest; Impatiens capensis is characteristic in the East. Other forbs and ferns present include Caltha palustris, Chelone glabra, Epilobium coloratum, Impatiens capensis (= Impatiens biflora), Pedicularis lanceolata, Pilea pumila, Saxifraga pensylvanica, Solidago patula, and Thelypteris palustris. Graminoid cover is generally low, less than 25%, and may include Carex bromoides, Carex comosa, Carex lacustris, Carex stricta, and Carex trichocarpa.
No Data Available
This community is defined as an herbaceous community, thereby excluding many closed canopy seepage meadows with trees or shrubs rooted in the stand. However, some herbaceous seepage meadows could be quite shaded because of surrounding upland forests. This type is not always separated out by state heritage programs, since it can be a zone in other wetland types. Carex lacustris may occur in this type. The presence of coarse-leaved sedges may be a structural difference as compared to fens, which typically have fine-leaved sedges (MNNHP 1993). This association overlaps a great deal with Symplocarpus foetidus - Impatiens capensis Seepage Meadow (CEGL006567). They could possibly be merged.
Synonomy: = Seepage Meadow (MNNHP 1993)

Related Type Name:

Short Citation:
  • Chapman et al. 1989
  • Fike 1999
  • Homoya et al. 1988
  • Hop et al. 2009
  • Hop et al. 2013
  • INAI n.d.
  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group n.d.
  • Minnesota DNR 2005a
  • Minnesota DNR 2005c
  • MNFI 2003
  • MNNHP 1993
  • Newbold 1993
  • Newbold 1996
  • Podniesinski et al. 2005b
  • White and Madany 1978
  • WNHI 2011
States/Provinces:IA, IL, IN, MA, MI, MN, NJ?, OH, ON, PA, WI
Nations:CA, US
Range:This community is found throughout the upper midwestern region of the United States and adjacent Canada, where it develops around spring heads and in broader areas of groundwater discharge. The type extends from Indiana and possibly Ontario and Ohio, west to Minnesota and Iowa.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name:Prairie Parkland (Temperate) Province
Province Code:251   Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
Section Name:Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code:221F     Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
No Data Available
This is an herbaceous-dominated community. Tree and shrub cover may vary, particularly from overhanging upland trees, but trees and shrubs rooted in the stand are less than 25% cover. Forbs dominate the community. Symplocarpus foetidus and Angelica atropurpurea are the leading dominant and indicator species. Other forbs and ferns present include Caltha palustris, Chelone glabra, Epilobium coloratum, Impatiens capensis (= Impatiens biflora), Impatiens capensis, Pedicularis lanceolata, Pilea pumila, Saxifraga pensylvanica, Solidago patula, and Thelypteris palustris. Graminoid cover is generally low, less than 25%, and may include Carex bromoides, Carex comosa, Carex lacustris, Carex stricta, and Carex trichocarpa (White and Madany 1978, MNNHP 1993). Solecki (1998) described two seepage fen occurrences in central Illinois where Symplocarpus foetidus was absent, but where composition was otherwise similar to stands described for this type. These Illinois stands have been placed in this type for now.
This community develops around spring heads and in broader areas of groundwater discharge, where water flows to the surface in a diffuse rather than concentrated flow. Peat may be present in some areas, and perhaps locally can be as deep as 1 m, but it is typically less than 0.4 m deep. Stands can occur along the lower slopes of glacial moraines, ravines and in deep glacial meltwater-cut river valleys at the bases of slopes separating stream terraces (TNC 1990, MNNHP 1993). Soils are seasonally to more-or-less permanently saturated, with circumneutral to slightly alkaline pH and cold water temperatures (MNNHP 1993).
Low
No Data Available
Authors:
D. Faber-Langendoen and L.A. Sneddon      Version Date: 03Jul2013


References:
  • Chapman, K. A., D. A. Albert, and G. A. Reese. 1989. Draft descriptions of Michigan's natural community types. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Lansing, MI. 35 pp.
  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.
  • Hop, K., J. Drake, A. Strassman, E. Hoy, J. Jakusz, S. Menard, and J. Dieck. 2013. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/HTLN/NRT--2013/792. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 302 pp.
  • Hop, K., S. Lubinski, J. Dieck, J. Drake, and S. Menard. 2009. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. USDI U.S. Geological Survey, La Crosse, WI, and NatureServe, St. Paul, MN. 312 pp.
  • INAI [Iowa Natural Areas Inventory]. No date. Vegetation classification of Iowa. Iowa Natural Areas Inventory, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines.
  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.
  • Minnesota DNR [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources]. 2003-2005a. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota. Three volumes: The Laurentian Mixed Forest Province (2003), The Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province (2005c), The Prairie Parkland and Tallgrass Aspen Parklands provinces (2005b). Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul.
  • Minnesota DNR [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources]. 2005c. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota: The Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province. Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul.
  • MNFI [Michigan Natural Features Inventory]. 2003. Michigan's natural communities. Draft list and descriptions. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing.
  • MNNHP [Minnesota Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. Minnesota's native vegetation: A key to natural communities. Version 1.5. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program, St. Paul, MN. 110 pp.
  • Newbold, A. 1993. Report of wetlands vegetation study, 1993, Valley Forge National Historical Park. Unpublished report. 19 pp.
  • Newbold, A. 1996. Report on the Mount Misery and Mount Joy vegetation study, 1996, Valley Forge National Historical Park. Unpublished report. 14 pp.
  • Podniesinski, G. S., L. A. Sneddon, J. Lundgren, H. Devine, B. Slocumb, and F. Koch. 2005b. Vegetation classification and mapping of Valley Forge National Historical Park. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2005/028. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 129 pp.
  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.
  • WNHI [Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory]. 2011. Natural communities of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory (NHI), Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. [http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/EndangeredResources/Communities.asp] (accessed March 2011).


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

Date Accessed:

To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

About spatial standards:
The United States Federal Geographic Data Committee (hereafter called the FGDC) is tasked to develop geospatial data standards that will enable sharing of spatial data among producers and users and support the growing National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), acting under the Office of Management Budget (OMB) Circular A-16 (OMB 1990, 2000) and Executive Order #12906 (Clinton 1994) as amended by Executive Order #13286 (Bush 2003). FGDC subcommittees and working groups, in consultation and cooperation with state, local, tribal, private, academic, and international communities, develop standards for the content, quality, and transferability of geospatial data. FGDC standards are developed through a structured process, integrated with one another to the extent possible, supportable by the current vendor community (but are independent of specific technologies), and publicly available.

About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Association level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

U.S. Government
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Department of the Interior (USDI)
  • Forest Service (FS) - Chair
  • National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS)
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)
  • U.S. Navy (NAVY)
  • Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
  • National Park Service (NPS)
  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Non U.S. Government
  • NatureServe (NS)
  • Ecological Society of America (ESA)

Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)