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CEGL002385 Symplocarpus foetidus - Mixed Forbs Seep

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence:
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Skunk-cabbage - Mixed Forbs Seep
Colloquial Name: Skunk-cabbage - Mixed Forbs Seep
Hierarchy Level: Association
Type Concept: This community is found throughout the upper midwestern region of the United States and adjacent Canada, ranging to the Northeast, where it develops around spring heads and in broader areas of groundwater discharge. The peat layer is typically less than 0.4 m deep. Tree and shrub cover may vary, particularly from overhanging upland trees, but trees and shrubs rooted in the stand are less than 25% cover. Forbs dominate the community. Symplocarpus foetidus and Angelica atropurpurea are the dominant and indicative species in the Midwest; Impatiens capensis is characteristic in the East. Other forbs and ferns present include Caltha palustris, Chelone glabra, Epilobium coloratum, Impatiens capensis (= Impatiens biflora), Pedicularis lanceolata, Pilea pumila, Saxifraga pensylvanica, Solidago patula, and Thelypteris palustris. Graminoid cover is generally low, less than 25%, and may include Carex bromoides, Carex comosa, Carex lacustris, Carex stricta, and Carex trichocarpa.
Diagnostic Characteristics: No Data Available
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: This community is defined as an herbaceous community, thereby excluding many closed canopy seepage meadows with trees or shrubs rooted in the stand. However, some herbaceous seepage meadows could be quite shaded because of surrounding upland forests. This type is not always separated out by state heritage programs, since it can be a zone in other wetland types. Carex lacustris may occur in this type. The presence of coarse-leaved sedges may be a structural difference as compared to fens, which typically have fine-leaved sedges (MNNHP 1993). This association overlaps a great deal with Symplocarpus foetidus - Impatiens capensis Seepage Meadow (CEGL006567). They could possibly be merged.
Similar NVC Types:
Acer rubrum - Fraxinus spp. - Betula papyrifera / Cornus canadensis Swamp Forest, note: may have a similar composition.
Fraxinus nigra - Mixed Hardwoods - Conifers / Cornus sericea / Carex spp. Swamp Forest, note: may have a similar composition.
Carex crinita - Osmunda spp. / Sphagnum spp. Acidic Herbaceous Seep, note:
Carex crinita - Osmunda spp. / Physocarpus opulifolius Acidic Herbaceous Seep, note:
Cornus sericea - Salix spp. - (Rosa palustris) Shrub Swamp, note: may have a similar composition.
Symplocarpus foetidus - Impatiens capensis Seepage Meadow, note:
Physiognomy and Structure: No Data Available
Floristics: This is an herbaceous-dominated community. Tree and shrub cover may vary, particularly from overhanging upland trees, but trees and shrubs rooted in the stand are less than 25% cover. Forbs dominate the community. Symplocarpus foetidus and Angelica atropurpurea are the leading dominant and indicator species. Other forbs and ferns present include Caltha palustris, Chelone glabra, Epilobium coloratum, Impatiens capensis (= Impatiens biflora), Impatiens capensis, Pedicularis lanceolata, Pilea pumila, Saxifraga pensylvanica, Solidago patula, and Thelypteris palustris. Graminoid cover is generally low, less than 25%, and may include Carex bromoides, Carex comosa, Carex lacustris, Carex stricta, and Carex trichocarpa (White and Madany 1978, MNNHP 1993). Solecki (1998) described two seepage fen occurrences in central Illinois where Symplocarpus foetidus was absent, but where composition was otherwise similar to stands described for this type. These Illinois stands have been placed in this type for now.
Dynamics: No Data Available
Environmental Description: This community develops around spring heads and in broader areas of groundwater discharge, where water flows to the surface in a diffuse rather than concentrated flow. Peat may be present in some areas, and perhaps locally can be as deep as 1 m, but it is typically less than 0.4 m deep. Stands can occur along the lower slopes of glacial moraines, ravines and in deep glacial meltwater-cut river valleys at the bases of slopes separating stream terraces (TNC 1990, MNNHP 1993). Soils are seasonally to more-or-less permanently saturated, with circumneutral to slightly alkaline pH and cold water temperatures (MNNHP 1993).
Geographic Range: This community is found throughout the upper midwestern region of the United States and adjacent Canada, where it develops around spring heads and in broader areas of groundwater discharge. The type extends from Indiana and possibly Ontario and Ohio, west to Minnesota and Iowa.
Nations: CA, US
States/Provinces: IA, IL, IN, MA, MI, MN, NJ?, OH, ON, PA, WI
US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Temperate) Province
Province Code: 251    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Confidence Level: Low
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: G4?
Greasons:
Concept Lineage:
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy: = Seepage Meadow (MNNHP 1993)
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
Author of Description: D. Faber-Langendoen and L.A. Sneddon
Acknowledgements:
Version Date: 03Jul2013
References:
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  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.
  • Hop, K., J. Drake, A. Strassman, E. Hoy, J. Jakusz, S. Menard, and J. Dieck. 2013. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/HTLN/NRT--2013/792. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 302 pp.
  • Hop, K., S. Lubinski, J. Dieck, J. Drake, and S. Menard. 2009. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. USDI U.S. Geological Survey, La Crosse, WI, and NatureServe, St. Paul, MN. 312 pp.
  • INAI [Iowa Natural Areas Inventory]. No date. Vegetation classification of Iowa. Iowa Natural Areas Inventory, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines.
  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.
  • Minnesota DNR [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources]. 2003-2005a. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota. Three volumes: The Laurentian Mixed Forest Province (2003), The Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province (2005c), The Prairie Parkland and Tallgrass Aspen Parklands provinces (2005b). Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul.
  • Minnesota DNR [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources]. 2005c. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota: The Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province. Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul.
  • MNFI [Michigan Natural Features Inventory]. 2003. Michigan's natural communities. Draft list and descriptions. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing.
  • MNNHP [Minnesota Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. Minnesota's native vegetation: A key to natural communities. Version 1.5. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program, St. Paul, MN. 110 pp.
  • Newbold, A. 1993. Report of wetlands vegetation study, 1993, Valley Forge National Historical Park. Unpublished report. 19 pp.
  • Newbold, A. 1996. Report on the Mount Misery and Mount Joy vegetation study, 1996, Valley Forge National Historical Park. Unpublished report. 14 pp.
  • Podniesinski, G. S., L. A. Sneddon, J. Lundgren, H. Devine, B. Slocumb, and F. Koch. 2005b. Vegetation classification and mapping of Valley Forge National Historical Park. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2005/028. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 129 pp.
  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.
  • WNHI [Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory]. 2011. Natural communities of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Natural Heritage Inventory (NHI), Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison. [http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/EndangeredResources/Communities.asp] (accessed March 2011).