Invalid Unit Specified
Association Detail Report: CEGL005023
Quercus prinus - Quercus (alba, coccinea) / Viburnum acerifolium - (Kalmia latifolia) Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
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Translated Name:Chestnut Oak - (White Oak, Scarlet Oak) / Mapleleaf Viburnum - (Mountain Laurel) Forest
Colloquial Name:Appalachian Chestnut Oak - Mixed Oak Forest
This chestnut oak - mixed oak forest community is found in the Allegheny Plateau region of Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Stands occur on dry to subxeric upper slopes and narrow ridgetops. Soils are shallow and occur over non-calcareous bedrock of sandstone, conglomerate, or shale. Tree species commonly include Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea, along with Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, and Quercus velutina. Castanea dentata was a major component in the past and may be evident as root sprouts and/or decaying stumps and logs. Other associates can include Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Carya alba, Nyssa sylvatica, Oxydendrum arboreum, and occasional Pinus spp. (Pinus echinata, Pinus rigida, Pinus virginiana). Tall shrubs and small trees can include Cornus florida, Sassafras albidum, and Viburnum acerifolium. Characteristic dwarf-shrubs and vines include Gaylussacia baccata, Gaultheria procumbens, Smilax glauca, Smilax rotundifolia, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, and, more locally, Kalmia latifolia. The herbaceous layer includes Antennaria plantaginifolia, Symphyotrichum cordifolium (= Aster cordifolius), Carex pensylvanica, Cypripedium acaule, Danthonia spicata, Epigaea repens, Helianthus divaricatus, Helianthus hirsutus, Dichanthelium dichotomum (= Panicum dichotomum), Polystichum acrostichoides, and others. Lichens (Cladina spp. and Cladonia spp.) and mosses can form a prominent layer.
No Data Available
Vegetation Hierarchy
Name:Database Code:Classification Code:
Class 1 Forest & Woodland C01 1
Subclass 1.B Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland S15 1.B
Formation 1.B.2 Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland F008 1.B.2
Division 1.B.2.Na Eastern North American Forest & Woodland D008 1.B.2.Na
Macrogroup M502 Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland M502 1.B.2.Na.2
Group G015 Appalachian Oak / Chestnut Forest G015 1.B.2.Na.2.a
Alliance A0248 Chestnut Oak - Scarlet Oak Forest A0248
Association CEGL005023 Appalachian Chestnut Oak - Mixed Oak Forest CEGL005023
This is the historic chestnut oak forest after loss of chestnut. Quercus alba may often be a codominant. Quercus velutina and Quercus rubra may be as common as Quercus coccinea in Ohio stands. In Ohio the type apparently occurs on both the glaciated and unglaciated portions of the Allegheny Plateau. Distinguishing this type from Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya ovata Glaciated Forest (CEGL002068) may require some minimum cutoff values for the dominance of Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea (perhaps at least 20% cover or basal area of either), or ground layer species, such as Vaccinium or the lichens and mosses. Dominance by Acer saccharum (perhaps at least 25%) would place a stand in Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Acer saccharum / Lindera benzoin Forest (CEGL002059), the Appalachian oak - maple type. Compare this type with Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium (angustifolium, pallidum) Forest (CEGL006282) and Quercus prinus / Smilax spp. Forest (CEGL005022).
Synonomy:

Related Type Name:CEGL007700 replaces this to the south.

Short Citation:
  • Anderson 1996
  • Fike 1999
  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group n.d.
  • ONHD unpubl. data
  • Perles et al. 2006c
States/Provinces:OH, PA, WV
Nations:US
Range:This chestnut oak - mixed oak forest community is found in the United States from Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. It is not found in Kentucky, which is south of its range.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name:Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code:221   Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
Section Name:Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code:221F     Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
No Data Available
Tree species commonly include Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea, along with Quercus alba, Quercus rubra and Quercus velutina. Castanea dentata was a major component in the past. Other associates can include Acer rubrum, Carya alba, Nyssa sylvatica, Oxydendrum arboreum, and occasional Pinus spp. (Pinus echinata, Pinus rigida, Pinus virginiana). Tall shrubs and small trees can include Cornus florida, Sassafras albidum, and Viburnum acerifolium. Characteristic dwarf-shrubs and vines include Gaylussacia baccata, Gaultheria procumbens, Smilax glauca, Smilax rotundifolia, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, and, more locally, Kalmia latifolia. The herbaceous layer includes Antennaria plantaginifolia, Symphyotrichum cordifolium (= Aster cordifolius), Carex pensylvanica, Cypripedium acaule, Dichanthelium dichotomum var. dichotomum, Danthonia spicata, Epigaea repens, Helianthus divaricatus, Helianthus hirsutus, Polystichum acrostichoides, and others. Lichens (Cladina spp. and Cladonia spp.) and mosses can form a prominent layer (Anderson 1996, Fike 1999).
Stands occur on dry/xeric upper slopes and narrow ridgetops. Soils are typically shallow and occur over non-calcareous bedrock of sandstone, conglomerate, or shale. Soils are acidic, with unincorporated mor humus that, in turn, promotes soil podzolization (Anderson 1996). In the glaciated region of the Allegheny Plateau, stands are more isolated, but have been reported over dry glacial features, such as kames or gravel knobs (Anderson 1996). Stands are on non-calcareous bedrock of sandstone, conglomerate, or shale in the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. In the glaciated region of the plateau, stands are more isolated, but have been reported over dry glacial features, such as kames or gravel knobs (Anderson 1996).
Low
This community can occupy lower, more moist slopes with past, heavy disturbances from logging and fire (Anderson 1996). By and large Quercus prinus appears to have replaced Castanea dentata after that species was decimated by chestnut blight. Quercus prinus life-history characteristics include slow growth, lowered nutrient demands, relatively good drought resistance, relatively high fire resistance, good sprouting ability, and intermediate shade tolerance. Quercus coccinea life-history traits include a faster growth rate, shorter lifespan, lowered nutrient demands, poor fire resistance, and good sprouting ability. Its drought tolerance is less clear but may equal that of Quercus prinus.
Authors:
D. Faber-Langendoen and M. Pyne      Version Date: 24Oct2002


References:
  • Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.
  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.
  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.
  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2006c. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Park. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/058. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

Date Accessed:

To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

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About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Association level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

U.S. Government
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Department of the Interior (USDI)
  • Forest Service (FS) - Chair
  • National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS)
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
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  • Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
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  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
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Non U.S. Government
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Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)