Invalid Unit Specified
CEGL005023 Quercus prinus - Quercus (alba, coccinea) / Viburnum acerifolium - (Kalmia latifolia) Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence:
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Chestnut Oak - (White Oak, Scarlet Oak) / Mapleleaf Viburnum - (Mountain Laurel) Forest
Colloquial Name: Appalachian Chestnut Oak - Mixed Oak Forest
Hierarchy Level: Association
Type Concept: This chestnut oak - mixed oak forest community is found in the Allegheny Plateau region of Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Stands occur on dry to subxeric upper slopes and narrow ridgetops. Soils are shallow and occur over non-calcareous bedrock of sandstone, conglomerate, or shale. Tree species commonly include Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea, along with Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, and Quercus velutina. Castanea dentata was a major component in the past and may be evident as root sprouts and/or decaying stumps and logs. Other associates can include Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Carya alba, Nyssa sylvatica, Oxydendrum arboreum, and occasional Pinus spp. (Pinus echinata, Pinus rigida, Pinus virginiana). Tall shrubs and small trees can include Cornus florida, Sassafras albidum, and Viburnum acerifolium. Characteristic dwarf-shrubs and vines include Gaylussacia baccata, Gaultheria procumbens, Smilax glauca, Smilax rotundifolia, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, and, more locally, Kalmia latifolia. The herbaceous layer includes Antennaria plantaginifolia, Symphyotrichum cordifolium (= Aster cordifolius), Carex pensylvanica, Cypripedium acaule, Danthonia spicata, Epigaea repens, Helianthus divaricatus, Helianthus hirsutus, Dichanthelium dichotomum (= Panicum dichotomum), Polystichum acrostichoides, and others. Lichens (Cladina spp. and Cladonia spp.) and mosses can form a prominent layer.
Diagnostic Characteristics: No Data Available
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: This is the historic chestnut oak forest after loss of chestnut. Quercus alba may often be a codominant. Quercus velutina and Quercus rubra may be as common as Quercus coccinea in Ohio stands. In Ohio the type apparently occurs on both the glaciated and unglaciated portions of the Allegheny Plateau. Distinguishing this type from Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya ovata Glaciated Forest (CEGL002068) may require some minimum cutoff values for the dominance of Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea (perhaps at least 20% cover or basal area of either), or ground layer species, such as Vaccinium or the lichens and mosses. Dominance by Acer saccharum (perhaps at least 25%) would place a stand in Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Acer saccharum / Lindera benzoin Forest (CEGL002059), the Appalachian oak - maple type. Compare this type with Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium (angustifolium, pallidum) Forest (CEGL006282) and Quercus prinus / Smilax spp. Forest (CEGL005022).
Similar NVC Types:
Quercus alba - (Quercus prinus) / (Hydrangea quercifolia) - Viburnum acerifolium / Carex picta Forest, note:
Quercus prinus - Quercus spp. / Vaccinium arboreum - (Kalmia latifolia, Styrax grandifolius) Forest, note: a southern equivalent primarily of the Interior Low Plateau.
Quercus prinus - (Quercus coccinea) / Carya pallida / Vaccinium arboreum - Vaccinium pallidum Forest, note:
Quercus (prinus, coccinea) / Kalmia latifolia / (Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens) Forest, note:
Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum - Liriodendron tulipifera Forest, note:
Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium (angustifolium, pallidum) Forest, note: a more eastern equivalent?
Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Acer saccharum / Lindera benzoin Forest, note: (Appalachian oak-maple).
Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya ovata Glaciated Forest, note:
Quercus prinus / Smilax spp. Forest, note: is perhaps a more xeric type.
Pinus virginiana - Pinus (rigida, echinata) - (Quercus prinus) / Vaccinium pallidum Forest, note:
Physiognomy and Structure: No Data Available
Floristics: Tree species commonly include Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea, along with Quercus alba, Quercus rubra and Quercus velutina. Castanea dentata was a major component in the past. Other associates can include Acer rubrum, Carya alba, Nyssa sylvatica, Oxydendrum arboreum, and occasional Pinus spp. (Pinus echinata, Pinus rigida, Pinus virginiana). Tall shrubs and small trees can include Cornus florida, Sassafras albidum, and Viburnum acerifolium. Characteristic dwarf-shrubs and vines include Gaylussacia baccata, Gaultheria procumbens, Smilax glauca, Smilax rotundifolia, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, and, more locally, Kalmia latifolia. The herbaceous layer includes Antennaria plantaginifolia, Symphyotrichum cordifolium (= Aster cordifolius), Carex pensylvanica, Cypripedium acaule, Dichanthelium dichotomum var. dichotomum, Danthonia spicata, Epigaea repens, Helianthus divaricatus, Helianthus hirsutus, Polystichum acrostichoides, and others. Lichens (Cladina spp. and Cladonia spp.) and mosses can form a prominent layer (Anderson 1996, Fike 1999).
Dynamics: This community can occupy lower, more moist slopes with past, heavy disturbances from logging and fire (Anderson 1996). By and large Quercus prinus appears to have replaced Castanea dentata after that species was decimated by chestnut blight. Quercus prinus life-history characteristics include slow growth, lowered nutrient demands, relatively good drought resistance, relatively high fire resistance, good sprouting ability, and intermediate shade tolerance. Quercus coccinea life-history traits include a faster growth rate, shorter lifespan, lowered nutrient demands, poor fire resistance, and good sprouting ability. Its drought tolerance is less clear but may equal that of Quercus prinus.
Environmental Description: Stands occur on dry/xeric upper slopes and narrow ridgetops. Soils are typically shallow and occur over non-calcareous bedrock of sandstone, conglomerate, or shale. Soils are acidic, with unincorporated mor humus that, in turn, promotes soil podzolization (Anderson 1996). In the glaciated region of the Allegheny Plateau, stands are more isolated, but have been reported over dry glacial features, such as kames or gravel knobs (Anderson 1996). Stands are on non-calcareous bedrock of sandstone, conglomerate, or shale in the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. In the glaciated region of the plateau, stands are more isolated, but have been reported over dry glacial features, such as kames or gravel knobs (Anderson 1996).
Geographic Range: This chestnut oak - mixed oak forest community is found in the United States from Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. It is not found in Kentucky, which is south of its range.
Nations: US
States/Provinces: OH, PA, WV
US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Confidence Level: Low
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: G4?
Greasons: This is a widespread type; Quercus prinus replaces itself after canopy removal, seeds germinate in the shade of parent trees, and stands can also replace themselves from stump sprouts.
Concept Lineage: Merged into this (lower number).
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy:
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen, mod. S. Menard
Author of Description: D. Faber-Langendoen and M. Pyne
Acknowledgements:
Version Date: 24Oct2002
References:
  • Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.
  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.
  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.
  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2006c. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Park. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/058. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.