Invalid Unit Specified
Association Detail Report: CEGL006206
Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis - Prunus serotina / Rhododendron maximum Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
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Translated Name:Eastern Hemlock - Yellow Birch - Black Cherry / Great Laurel Forest
Colloquial Name:Central Appalachian Hemlock - Northern Hardwood Forest
This hemlock forest of the central Appalachian Mountains and High Allegheny Plateau occurs on acidic, mesic sandy loams and sands of glacial till or sandstone, in rocky ravines, or moderately steep slopes of any aspect, on stream terraces, or occasionally on flats. This is a closed-canopy, late-successional, mixed forest dominated by Tsuga canadensis with associated deciduous canopy species, including Acer saccharum, Prunus serotina, Betula alleghaniensis, Fagus grandifolia, and (in the southern portion of the type's range) Liriodendron tulipifera and/or Magnolia acuminata. Other associates include Acer rubrum, Betula lenta, Carya spp., Pinus strobus, Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, Ulmus americana, and Ostrya virginiana. The shrub layer varies in cover and composition. It is often a patchy but may have locally dense cover of Rhododendron maximum, or it may consist of some mixture of Corylus cornuta, Diervilla lonicera, Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin, Viburnum lantanoides, and ericaceous species Kalmia latifolia, Rhododendron maximum, and Vaccinium pallidum. The herbaceous layer typically includes ferns such as Dryopteris intermedia, Dryopteris carthusiana, Thelypteris noveboracensis, and Dennstaedtia punctilobula. Forb composition is variable and may include Anemone quinquefolia, Cornus canadensis, Cardamine diphylla, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Maianthemum canadense, Medeola virginiana, Mitchella repens, Oxalis montana, Trientalis borealis, Trillium grandiflorum, Trillium erectum, and Viola spp. Rhododendron maximum, Sambucus racemosa (= Sambucus pubens), and the abundance of Prunus serotina in the canopy differentiate this from other associations of this alliance.
No Data Available
No Data Available
Synonomy: = Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis - Prunus serotina / Rhododendron maximum Forest (Vanderhorst and Streets 2006)
? Eastern hemlock-yellow birch-black cherry forest (CAP pers. comm. 1998)

Related Type Name:

Short Citation:
  • Breden et al. 2001
  • CAP pers. comm. 1998
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group n.d.
  • Edinger et al. 2002
  • Edinger et al. 2014
  • Fike 1999
  • Harrison 2004
  • Harrison 2011
  • Perles et al. 2006d
  • Vanderhorst 2001a
  • Vanderhorst and Streets 2006
States/Provinces:MD?, NJ, NY, PA, VA?, WV
Nations:US
Range:Centered on the Central Appalachians and High Allegheny Plateau, this association ranges from Pennsylvania and southern New York south to West Virginia.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name:Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code:212   Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
Section Name:Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code:221E     Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
No Data Available
This is a closed-canopy, late-successional, mixed forest dominated by Tsuga canadensis with associated deciduous canopy species including Acer saccharum, Prunus serotina, Betula alleghaniensis, Fagus grandifolia, and (in the southern portion of the type's range) Liriodendron tulipifera and/or Magnolia acuminata. Other associates include Acer rubrum, Betula lenta, Carya spp., Pinus strobus, Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, Ulmus americana, and Ostrya virginiana. The shrub layer varies in cover and composition. It is often a patchy but may have locally dense cover of Rhododendron maximum, or it may consist of some mixture of Corylus cornuta, Diervilla lonicera, Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin, Viburnum lantanoides, and ericaceous species Kalmia latifolia, Rhododendron maximum, and Vaccinium pallidum. The herbaceous layer typically includes ferns such as Dryopteris intermedia, Dryopteris carthusiana, Thelypteris noveboracensis, and Dennstaedtia punctilobula. Forb composition is variable and may include Anemone quinquefolia, Cornus canadensis, Cardamine diphylla, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Maianthemum canadense, Medeola virginiana, Mitchella repens, Oxalis montana, Trientalis borealis, Trillium grandiflorum, Trillium erectum, and Viola spp.
This forest occurs on acidic, mesic sandy loams and sands of glacial till or sandstone, in rocky ravines, or moderately steep slopes of any aspect, on stream terraces, or occasionally on flats.
Moderate
Hemlock woolly adelgid is killing hemlocks throughout the range of this association.
Authors:
S.C. Gawler      Version Date: 03Oct2006


References:
  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.
  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.
  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.
  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. A. Zimmerman, E. Eastman, and L. A. Sneddon. 2006d. Vegetation classification and mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/079. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001a. Plant community classification and mapping of the Camp Dawson Collective Training Area, Preston County, West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 101 pp.
  • Vanderhorst, J., and B. P. Streets. 2006. Vegetation classification and mapping of Camp Dawson Army Training Site, West Virginia: Second approximation. Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 83 pp.


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

Date Accessed:

To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

About spatial standards:
The United States Federal Geographic Data Committee (hereafter called the FGDC) is tasked to develop geospatial data standards that will enable sharing of spatial data among producers and users and support the growing National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), acting under the Office of Management Budget (OMB) Circular A-16 (OMB 1990, 2000) and Executive Order #12906 (Clinton 1994) as amended by Executive Order #13286 (Bush 2003). FGDC subcommittees and working groups, in consultation and cooperation with state, local, tribal, private, academic, and international communities, develop standards for the content, quality, and transferability of geospatial data. FGDC standards are developed through a structured process, integrated with one another to the extent possible, supportable by the current vendor community (but are independent of specific technologies), and publicly available.

About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Association level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

U.S. Government
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Department of the Interior (USDI)
  • Forest Service (FS) - Chair
  • National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS)
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)
  • U.S. Navy (NAVY)
  • Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
  • National Park Service (NPS)
  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Non U.S. Government
  • NatureServe (NS)
  • Ecological Society of America (ESA)

Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)