Invalid Unit Specified
CEGL006206 Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis - Prunus serotina / Rhododendron maximum Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence:
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Eastern Hemlock - Yellow Birch - Black Cherry / Great Laurel Forest
Colloquial Name: Central Appalachian Hemlock - Northern Hardwood Forest
Hierarchy Level: Association
Type Concept: This hemlock forest of the central Appalachian Mountains and High Allegheny Plateau occurs on acidic, mesic sandy loams and sands of glacial till or sandstone, in rocky ravines, or moderately steep slopes of any aspect, on stream terraces, or occasionally on flats. This is a closed-canopy, late-successional, mixed forest dominated by Tsuga canadensis with associated deciduous canopy species, including Acer saccharum, Prunus serotina, Betula alleghaniensis, Fagus grandifolia, and (in the southern portion of the type's range) Liriodendron tulipifera and/or Magnolia acuminata. Other associates include Acer rubrum, Betula lenta, Carya spp., Pinus strobus, Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, Ulmus americana, and Ostrya virginiana. The shrub layer varies in cover and composition. It is often a patchy but may have locally dense cover of Rhododendron maximum, or it may consist of some mixture of Corylus cornuta, Diervilla lonicera, Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin, Viburnum lantanoides, and ericaceous species Kalmia latifolia, Rhododendron maximum, and Vaccinium pallidum. The herbaceous layer typically includes ferns such as Dryopteris intermedia, Dryopteris carthusiana, Thelypteris noveboracensis, and Dennstaedtia punctilobula. Forb composition is variable and may include Anemone quinquefolia, Cornus canadensis, Cardamine diphylla, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Maianthemum canadense, Medeola virginiana, Mitchella repens, Oxalis montana, Trientalis borealis, Trillium grandiflorum, Trillium erectum, and Viola spp. Rhododendron maximum, Sambucus racemosa (= Sambucus pubens), and the abundance of Prunus serotina in the canopy differentiate this from other associations of this alliance.
Diagnostic Characteristics: No Data Available
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: No Data Available
Similar NVC Types:
Thuja occidentalis / Carex eburnea - Pellaea atropurpurea Cliff Woodland, note:
Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia - Acer saccharum / (Hamamelis virginiana, Kalmia latifolia) Forest, note:
Betula alleghaniensis - (Tsuga canadensis) / Rhododendron maximum / (Leucothoe fontanesiana) Forest, note:
Picea rubens - Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia / Dryopteris intermedia Forest, note:
Physiognomy and Structure: No Data Available
Floristics: This is a closed-canopy, late-successional, mixed forest dominated by Tsuga canadensis with associated deciduous canopy species including Acer saccharum, Prunus serotina, Betula alleghaniensis, Fagus grandifolia, and (in the southern portion of the type's range) Liriodendron tulipifera and/or Magnolia acuminata. Other associates include Acer rubrum, Betula lenta, Carya spp., Pinus strobus, Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, Ulmus americana, and Ostrya virginiana. The shrub layer varies in cover and composition. It is often a patchy but may have locally dense cover of Rhododendron maximum, or it may consist of some mixture of Corylus cornuta, Diervilla lonicera, Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin, Viburnum lantanoides, and ericaceous species Kalmia latifolia, Rhododendron maximum, and Vaccinium pallidum. The herbaceous layer typically includes ferns such as Dryopteris intermedia, Dryopteris carthusiana, Thelypteris noveboracensis, and Dennstaedtia punctilobula. Forb composition is variable and may include Anemone quinquefolia, Cornus canadensis, Cardamine diphylla, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Maianthemum canadense, Medeola virginiana, Mitchella repens, Oxalis montana, Trientalis borealis, Trillium grandiflorum, Trillium erectum, and Viola spp.
Dynamics: Hemlock woolly adelgid is killing hemlocks throughout the range of this association.
Environmental Description: This forest occurs on acidic, mesic sandy loams and sands of glacial till or sandstone, in rocky ravines, or moderately steep slopes of any aspect, on stream terraces, or occasionally on flats.
Geographic Range: Centered on the Central Appalachians and High Allegheny Plateau, this association ranges from Pennsylvania and southern New York south to West Virginia.
Nations: US
States/Provinces: MD?, NJ, NY, PA, VA?, WV
US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Confidence Level: Moderate
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: G4?
Greasons: This association is a widespread and common type over much of its range, but it is potentially threatened by the hemlock woolly adelgid.
Concept Lineage: merged
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy: = Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis - Prunus serotina / Rhododendron maximum Forest (Vanderhorst and Streets 2006)
? Eastern hemlock-yellow birch-black cherry forest (CAP pers. comm. 1998)
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group
Author of Description: S.C. Gawler
Acknowledgements:
Version Date: 03Oct2006
References:
  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.
  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.
  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.
  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. A. Zimmerman, E. Eastman, and L. A. Sneddon. 2006d. Vegetation classification and mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/079. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001a. Plant community classification and mapping of the Camp Dawson Collective Training Area, Preston County, West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 101 pp.
  • Vanderhorst, J., and B. P. Streets. 2006. Vegetation classification and mapping of Camp Dawson Army Training Site, West Virginia: Second approximation. Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 83 pp.