Invalid Unit Specified
Association Detail Report: CEGL007525
Pinus taeda - Quercus alba - (Fagus grandifolia) / Smilax pumila - Mitchella repens Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
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Translated Name:Loblolly Pine - White Oak - (American Beech) / Sarsaparilla-vine - Partridgeberry Forest
Colloquial Name:West Gulf Coastal Plain Mesic Loblolly Pine - Mixed Hardwood Forest
This acidic, mesic mixed forest of the West Gulf Coastal Plain may best be described as hardwood - loblolly forest. Taken together, hardwoods are more abundant and important than are pines, however, Pinus taeda may be the single most dominant species in the overstory with individual trees attaining large diameters and height. The core concept of this type are stands with a significant component of mesic site species in all strata, although somewhat slightly drier forms may be included as long as Quercus alba is important in the overstory. This type occurs in a variety of ecological settings in the region, including middle and lower slopes between uplands and stream bottoms and at the heads of drainages along small, intermittent streams on acidic sandy loams, silt loams and silty clays, and mesic situations in flatwoods environments.
No Data Available
The most floristically rich examples occur up slope of mesic ravines in the region. Flatwoods examples and those in related environments lack many of the vernal species which may occasionally be present in this type. With additional work and data these depauperate, presumably drier examples may merit recognition at a later date (R. Evans pers. obs. 2002). Additionally, there may be a slightly subcalcareous subtype along the southwestern periphery of the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain (see plots SAMH.4, SAMH.2) (NatureServe unpubl. data).
Synonomy: < IA6e. Loblolly Pine - Shortleaf Pine - Oak Forest (Allard 1990)
< Loblolly Pine - Hardwood (13) (USFS 1988)
< Loblolly Pine - Hardwood: 82 (Eyre 1980)
< Lower Slope Hardwood Forest (Marks and Harcombe 1981)
< T1B3aIII5b. Pinus taeda-Quercus (phellos, nigra, stellata) (Foti et al. 1994)
< White Oak - Loblolly Pine / Callicarpa Loamy Mesic Lower Slopes and Terraces (Turner et al. 1999)

Related Type Name:

Short Citation:
  • Allard 1990
  • Diamond 1993
  • Dickson et al. 1993
  • Evans, R. pers. comm.
  • Eyre 1980
  • Foti et al. 1994
  • Harcombe and Neaville 1977
  • Hatchell 1964
  • Kilpatrick et al. 1986
  • Landers 1989
  • LNHP 2009
  • MacRoberts and MacRoberts 1997c
  • Marks and Harcombe 1981
  • Martin and Smith 1991
  • Martin and Smith 1993
  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern U.S. unpubl. data
  • Smith 1995b
  • Smith 1996a
  • Soil Conservation Service 1990
  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.
  • Turner et al. 1999
  • Turner et al. n.d.
  • USFS 1988
States/Provinces:AR, LA, OK?, TX
Nations:US
Range:This association is known from Louisiana and Texas and likely ranges into Arkansas and Oklahoma.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name:Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code:231   Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
Section Name:Middle Coastal Plains, Western Section
Section Code:231E     Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
No Data Available
This mixed forest is dominated by both Pinus taeda and mixed hardwoods. Associated hardwoods may include Quercus alba, Quercus nigra, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus phellos, Nyssa sylvatica, Liquidambar styraciflua, Fagus grandifolia, Magnolia grandiflora (diminishes greatly north of central Louisiana), Quercus michauxii, Quercus pagoda, Acer rubrum, Carya alba, Carya cordiformis, and less commonly Quercus falcata, Quercus stellata, and Carya texana. The subcanopy may include canopy species and Ilex opaca var. opaca, Ostrya virginiana, Carpinus caroliniana, Prunus mexicana, and Cornus florida. The short-shrub stratum may include canopy and subcanopy species, plus Callicarpa americana, Symplocos tinctoria, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Vaccinium elliottii, Viburnum dentatum, and Viburnum acerifolium. Herbaceous species may include Polystichum acrostichoides, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Spigelia marilandica, Mitchella repens, Podophyllum peltatum, Phlox divaricata, Tipularia discolor, Arisaema triphyllum, Chasmanthium laxum, and Melica mutica (NatureServe Ecology unpubl. data, Turner et al. unpubl. data). The exotics Lonicera japonica, Ligustrum sinense, and Microstegium vimineum may occur in this community.
This type occurs in a variety of ecological settings in the region, including middle and lower slopes between uplands and stream bottoms and at the heads of drainages along small, intermittent streams on acidic sandy loams, silt loams and silty clays, and mesic situations in flatwoods environments. Hydrology ranges from mesic-wet to dry-mesic. Soils are acidic and include silt loams, sandy loams, and silty clays. This forest occurs on mesic flats and middle and lower slopes between uplands and stream bottoms, often on Caddo and Glenmora silt loams. It is also known from along small streams on Caddo-Guyton silt loams. Caddo soils are poorly drained, slowly permeable fine-silty, siliceous, thermic Typic Glossaqualfs occurring on broad flats in the terrace uplands, with slopes less than 1%. Glenmora soils are moderately well-drained, slowly permeably fine-silty, siliceous, thermic Glossaquic Paleudalf with slopes ranging from 1-3%, occurring on broad ridgetops and gentle side slopes in terrace uplands. Guyton soils are poorly drained, slowly permeable soils formed in loamy alluvium. They are fine-silty, siliceous, thermic Typic Glossaqualfs with slopes less than 1% occurring in broad flats and depressions, and along streams. Caddo, Glenmora, and Guyton soils are typically found near each other (Kilpatrick et al. 1986, Martin and Smith 1991, 1993).
Low
This is a topographically isolated community that rarely burns. It typically contains a few to an abundant number of fire-sensitive species such as Fagus grandifolia, Magnolia grandiflora, and Ilex opaca. Insect and pathogen outbreaks are likely more important disturbance vectors in this community (Martin and Smith 1991, 1993). The influence and historical importance of fire on this type are poorly understood. Stands are found in areas where fire-return intervals were likely longer than in adjacent pyrogenic communities, with fire only entering from those adjacent areas (Martin and Smith 1993). Landers (1989) proposed that Pinus taeda habitats did not burn at all. In many areas where this vegetation is found in eastern Texas, there is no adjacent pyrogenic vegetation, suggesting that these areas may not have burned regularly, if at all, although attempts are made to use prescribed fire in these areas at least once every 10 years (R. Evans pers. obs.).
Authors:
J.E. Mohan, T. Foti, L.M. Smith, and R.E. Evans      Version Date: 21May2002


References:
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
  • Diamond, D. D. 1993. Classification of the plant communities of Texas (series level). Unpublished document. Texas Natural Heritage Program, Austin. 25 pp.
  • Dickson, J. G., R. N. Conner, and J. H. Williamson. 1993. Breeding bird community changes in a developing pine plantation. Bird Populations 1:28-35.
  • Evans, Rob. Personal communication. Regional Ecologist, Plant Conservation Program, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Raleigh, NC.
  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
  • Foti, T., M. Blaney, X. Li, and K. G. Smith. 1994. A classification system for the natural vegetation of Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 48:50-53.
  • Harcombe, P. A., and J. E. Neaville. 1977. Vegetation types of Chambers County, Texas. The Texas Journal of Science 29:209-234.
  • Hatchell, G. E. 1964. Small mammal species and populations in the loblolly-shortleaf pine forest type of Louisiana. Research Paper SO-10. USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. 12 pp.
  • Kilpatrick, W. W., C. Henry, Jr., J. Ragus, A. Ardoin, P. Mason, and E. Williams. 1986. Soil survey of Grant Parish, Louisiana. USDA Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, and Louisiana Soil and Water Conservation Committee. 141 pp. plus maps.
  • Landers, J. L. 1989. Disturbance influences on pine traits in the southeastern United States. Pages 61-98 in: Proceedings 17th Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. High intensity fire in wildlands: Management challenges and options. May 18-21, 1989. Tallahassee, Florida.
  • LNHP [Louisiana Natural Heritage Program]. 2009. Natural communities of Louisiana. Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, Louisiana Department of Wildlife & Fisheries, Baton Rouge. 46 pp. [http://www.wlf.louisiana.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/page_wildlife/6776-Rare%20Natural%20Communities/LA_NAT_COM.pdf]
  • MacRoberts, B. R., and M. H. MacRoberts. 1997c. Floristics of beech-hardwood forest in east Texas. Phytologia 82(1):20-29.
  • Marks, P. L., and P. A. Harcombe. 1981. Forest vegetation of the Big Thicket, southeast Texas. Ecological Monographs 51:287-305.
  • Martin, D. L., and L. M. Smith. 1991. A survey and description of the natural plant communities of the Kisatchie National Forest, Winn and Kisatchie districts. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge, LA. 372 pp.
  • Martin, D. L., and L. M. Smith. 1993. A survey and description of the natural plant communities of the Kisatchie National Forest, Evangeline and Catahoula districts. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge. 274 pp.
  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.
  • Smith, L. M., compiler. 1995b. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program--July 1995. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 3 pp.
  • Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.
  • Soil Conservation Service. 1990. Soil survey of Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana. Prepared by Martin, P. G., Jr., C. L. Butler, E. Scott, J. E. Lyles, M. Mariano, J. Ragus, P. Mason, and L. Schoelerman. USDA Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with USDA Forest Service, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, and Louisiana Soil and Water Conservation Commission. 193 pp. plus maps.
  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.
  • Turner, R. L., J. E. Van Kley, L. S. Smith, and R. E. Evans. 1999. Ecological classification system for the national forests and adjacent areas of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The Nature Conservancy, Nacogdoches, TX. 95 pp. plus appendices.
  • Turner, R. L., J. E. Van Kley, L. S. Smith, and R. E. Evans. No date. Unpublished data from the national forests and adjacent areas of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The Nature Conservancy, Nacogdoches, TX.
  • USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

Date Accessed:

To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

About spatial standards:
The United States Federal Geographic Data Committee (hereafter called the FGDC) is tasked to develop geospatial data standards that will enable sharing of spatial data among producers and users and support the growing National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), acting under the Office of Management Budget (OMB) Circular A-16 (OMB 1990, 2000) and Executive Order #12906 (Clinton 1994) as amended by Executive Order #13286 (Bush 2003). FGDC subcommittees and working groups, in consultation and cooperation with state, local, tribal, private, academic, and international communities, develop standards for the content, quality, and transferability of geospatial data. FGDC standards are developed through a structured process, integrated with one another to the extent possible, supportable by the current vendor community (but are independent of specific technologies), and publicly available.

About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Association level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

U.S. Government
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Department of the Interior (USDI)
  • Forest Service (FS) - Chair
  • National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS)
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)
  • U.S. Navy (NAVY)
  • Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
  • National Park Service (NPS)
  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Non U.S. Government
  • NatureServe (NS)
  • Ecological Society of America (ESA)

Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)