Invalid Unit Specified
CEGL007525 Pinus taeda - Quercus alba - (Fagus grandifolia) / Smilax pumila - Mitchella repens Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Type Concept Sentence:
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Common (Translated Scientific) Name: Loblolly Pine - White Oak - (American Beech) / Sarsaparilla-vine - Partridgeberry Forest
Colloquial Name: West Gulf Coastal Plain Mesic Loblolly Pine - Mixed Hardwood Forest
Hierarchy Level: Association
Type Concept: This acidic, mesic mixed forest of the West Gulf Coastal Plain may best be described as hardwood - loblolly forest. Taken together, hardwoods are more abundant and important than are pines, however, Pinus taeda may be the single most dominant species in the overstory with individual trees attaining large diameters and height. The core concept of this type are stands with a significant component of mesic site species in all strata, although somewhat slightly drier forms may be included as long as Quercus alba is important in the overstory. This type occurs in a variety of ecological settings in the region, including middle and lower slopes between uplands and stream bottoms and at the heads of drainages along small, intermittent streams on acidic sandy loams, silt loams and silty clays, and mesic situations in flatwoods environments.
Diagnostic Characteristics: No Data Available
Rationale for Nominal Species or Physiognomic Features:
Classification Comments: The most floristically rich examples occur up slope of mesic ravines in the region. Flatwoods examples and those in related environments lack many of the vernal species which may occasionally be present in this type. With additional work and data these depauperate, presumably drier examples may merit recognition at a later date (R. Evans pers. obs. 2002). Additionally, there may be a slightly subcalcareous subtype along the southwestern periphery of the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain (see plots SAMH.4, SAMH.2) (NatureServe unpubl. data).
Similar NVC Types:
Pinus taeda - Quercus alba - Carya alba / Acer barbatum - (Acer leucoderme) Forest, note:
Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba / Ilex opaca var. opaca / Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides Forest, note: occurs downslope, on richer hardwood-dominated sites.
Pinus taeda - (Pinus echinata) - Quercus falcata - Carya texana / Vaccinium arboreum Forest, note: may spatially co-occur; often found upslope or in somewhat drier areas.
Pinus echinata - (Pinus taeda) - Quercus falcata / Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon Forest, note:
Quercus alba - Carya alba / Symplocos tinctoria / Mitchella repens Forest, note:
Physiognomy and Structure: No Data Available
Floristics: This mixed forest is dominated by both Pinus taeda and mixed hardwoods. Associated hardwoods may include Quercus alba, Quercus nigra, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus phellos, Nyssa sylvatica, Liquidambar styraciflua, Fagus grandifolia, Magnolia grandiflora (diminishes greatly north of central Louisiana), Quercus michauxii, Quercus pagoda, Acer rubrum, Carya alba, Carya cordiformis, and less commonly Quercus falcata, Quercus stellata, and Carya texana. The subcanopy may include canopy species and Ilex opaca var. opaca, Ostrya virginiana, Carpinus caroliniana, Prunus mexicana, and Cornus florida. The short-shrub stratum may include canopy and subcanopy species, plus Callicarpa americana, Symplocos tinctoria, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Vaccinium elliottii, Viburnum dentatum, and Viburnum acerifolium. Herbaceous species may include Polystichum acrostichoides, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Spigelia marilandica, Mitchella repens, Podophyllum peltatum, Phlox divaricata, Tipularia discolor, Arisaema triphyllum, Chasmanthium laxum, and Melica mutica (NatureServe Ecology unpubl. data, Turner et al. unpubl. data). The exotics Lonicera japonica, Ligustrum sinense, and Microstegium vimineum may occur in this community.
Dynamics: This is a topographically isolated community that rarely burns. It typically contains a few to an abundant number of fire-sensitive species such as Fagus grandifolia, Magnolia grandiflora, and Ilex opaca. Insect and pathogen outbreaks are likely more important disturbance vectors in this community (Martin and Smith 1991, 1993). The influence and historical importance of fire on this type are poorly understood. Stands are found in areas where fire-return intervals were likely longer than in adjacent pyrogenic communities, with fire only entering from those adjacent areas (Martin and Smith 1993). Landers (1989) proposed that Pinus taeda habitats did not burn at all. In many areas where this vegetation is found in eastern Texas, there is no adjacent pyrogenic vegetation, suggesting that these areas may not have burned regularly, if at all, although attempts are made to use prescribed fire in these areas at least once every 10 years (R. Evans pers. obs.).
Environmental Description: This type occurs in a variety of ecological settings in the region, including middle and lower slopes between uplands and stream bottoms and at the heads of drainages along small, intermittent streams on acidic sandy loams, silt loams and silty clays, and mesic situations in flatwoods environments. Hydrology ranges from mesic-wet to dry-mesic. Soils are acidic and include silt loams, sandy loams, and silty clays. This forest occurs on mesic flats and middle and lower slopes between uplands and stream bottoms, often on Caddo and Glenmora silt loams. It is also known from along small streams on Caddo-Guyton silt loams. Caddo soils are poorly drained, slowly permeable fine-silty, siliceous, thermic Typic Glossaqualfs occurring on broad flats in the terrace uplands, with slopes less than 1%. Glenmora soils are moderately well-drained, slowly permeably fine-silty, siliceous, thermic Glossaquic Paleudalf with slopes ranging from 1-3%, occurring on broad ridgetops and gentle side slopes in terrace uplands. Guyton soils are poorly drained, slowly permeable soils formed in loamy alluvium. They are fine-silty, siliceous, thermic Typic Glossaqualfs with slopes less than 1% occurring in broad flats and depressions, and along streams. Caddo, Glenmora, and Guyton soils are typically found near each other (Kilpatrick et al. 1986, Martin and Smith 1991, 1993).
Geographic Range: This association is known from Louisiana and Texas and likely ranges into Arkansas and Oklahoma.
Nations: US
States/Provinces: AR, LA, OK?, TX
US Forest Service Ecoregions (1994/1995)
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231    Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Coastal Plains, Western Section
Section Code: 231E     Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Omernik Ecoregions:
Confidence Level: Low
Confidence Level Comments:
Grank: G3G4
Greasons: This type is heavily altered throughout its natural range by human land-use practices.
Concept Lineage: merged in
Predecessors:
Obsolete Names:
Obsolete Parents:
Synonomy: < IA6e. Loblolly Pine - Shortleaf Pine - Oak Forest (Allard 1990)
< Loblolly Pine - Hardwood (13) (USFS 1988)
< Loblolly Pine - Hardwood: 82 (Eyre 1980)
< Lower Slope Hardwood Forest (Marks and Harcombe 1981)
< T1B3aIII5b. Pinus taeda-Quercus (phellos, nigra, stellata) (Foti et al. 1994)
< White Oak - Loblolly Pine / Callicarpa Loamy Mesic Lower Slopes and Terraces (Turner et al. 1999)
Concept Author(s): T. Foti and L.M. Smith, mod. R.E. Evans
Author of Description: J.E. Mohan, T. Foti, L.M. Smith, and R.E. Evans
Acknowledgements:
Version Date: 21May2002
References:
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
  • Diamond, D. D. 1993. Classification of the plant communities of Texas (series level). Unpublished document. Texas Natural Heritage Program, Austin. 25 pp.
  • Dickson, J. G., R. N. Conner, and J. H. Williamson. 1993. Breeding bird community changes in a developing pine plantation. Bird Populations 1:28-35.
  • Evans, Rob. Personal communication. Regional Ecologist, Plant Conservation Program, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Raleigh, NC.
  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
  • Foti, T., M. Blaney, X. Li, and K. G. Smith. 1994. A classification system for the natural vegetation of Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 48:50-53.
  • Harcombe, P. A., and J. E. Neaville. 1977. Vegetation types of Chambers County, Texas. The Texas Journal of Science 29:209-234.
  • Hatchell, G. E. 1964. Small mammal species and populations in the loblolly-shortleaf pine forest type of Louisiana. Research Paper SO-10. USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. 12 pp.
  • Kilpatrick, W. W., C. Henry, Jr., J. Ragus, A. Ardoin, P. Mason, and E. Williams. 1986. Soil survey of Grant Parish, Louisiana. USDA Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, and Louisiana Soil and Water Conservation Committee. 141 pp. plus maps.
  • Landers, J. L. 1989. Disturbance influences on pine traits in the southeastern United States. Pages 61-98 in: Proceedings 17th Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference. High intensity fire in wildlands: Management challenges and options. May 18-21, 1989. Tallahassee, Florida.
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  • MacRoberts, B. R., and M. H. MacRoberts. 1997c. Floristics of beech-hardwood forest in east Texas. Phytologia 82(1):20-29.
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  • Martin, D. L., and L. M. Smith. 1993. A survey and description of the natural plant communities of the Kisatchie National Forest, Evangeline and Catahoula districts. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge. 274 pp.
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  • Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.
  • Soil Conservation Service. 1990. Soil survey of Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana. Prepared by Martin, P. G., Jr., C. L. Butler, E. Scott, J. E. Lyles, M. Mariano, J. Ragus, P. Mason, and L. Schoelerman. USDA Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with USDA Forest Service, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, and Louisiana Soil and Water Conservation Commission. 193 pp. plus maps.
  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.
  • Turner, R. L., J. E. Van Kley, L. S. Smith, and R. E. Evans. 1999. Ecological classification system for the national forests and adjacent areas of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The Nature Conservancy, Nacogdoches, TX. 95 pp. plus appendices.
  • Turner, R. L., J. E. Van Kley, L. S. Smith, and R. E. Evans. No date. Unpublished data from the national forests and adjacent areas of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The Nature Conservancy, Nacogdoches, TX.
  • USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.