Invalid Unit Specified
Association Detail Report: CEGL007210
Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba - Liquidambar styraciflua / Magnolia grandiflora / Smilax pumila Forest

The U.S. National
Vegetation Classification
Collapse All::Expand All
Translated Name:American Beech - White Oak - Sweetgum / Southern Magnolia / Sarsaparilla-vine Forest
Colloquial Name:East Gulf Coastal Plain Rich Beech - White Oak Forest
This association includes mesic mixed hardwood forests of the Gulf Coastal Plain east of the Mississippi River. Within this region, examples are found within the range of Magnolia grandiflora, and stands typically include a diagnostic component of this species. Stands of this association contain a canopy dominated by Fagus grandifolia and Quercus alba, with Nyssa sylvatica, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus hemisphaerica (more prevalent on upper slopes). The more-or-less open subcanopy contains Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia macrophylla, Ostrya virginiana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer rubrum, and Cornus florida. Shrubs and woody vines are relatively sparse; shrubs include Aesculus pavia, Arundinaria gigantea, Hamamelis virginiana, Vaccinium elliottii, Ilex decidua, Symplocos tinctoria, Asimina parviflora, and Hypericum hypericoides. Woody vines include Vitis rotundifolia, Gelsemium sempervirens, and Toxicodendron radicans. The herbaceous stratum includes Smilax pumila, Polystichum acrostichoides, Mitchella repens, Arisaema triphyllum, Aristolochia serpentaria, Hexastylis arifolia var. callifolia?, Euphorbia corollata, Scutellaria elliptica, Dichanthelium boscii, Chasmanthium sessiliflorum, Carex spp., Dioscorea villosa, and the epiphyte Pleopeltis polypodioides (= Polypodium polypodioides).
No Data Available
This type was originally based on the work of Monk et al. (1989), but the association concept has since been narrowed considerably. This association has been documented from steep slopes of loess-derived soils in the Homochitto National Forest of Mississippi where it grades upslope into forests on upper slopes and ridges which contain Quercus falcata, Quercus stellata, Pinus taeda, and Juniperus virginiana. Stands have also been attributed to this type in Alabama and north Florida (NatureServe Ecology unpubl. data). Some stands in the Talladega National Forest, Oakmulgee Ranger District, are clearly related to this type, but do not contain any Magnolia grandiflora and have dense shrub layers composed of Illicium floridanum. They are placed here tentatively, but may be worthy of separate recognition.
Synonomy: < IA8d. Southern Mixed Hardwood Forest (Allard 1990)
< Southern Mixed Hardwood Forest (type 7) (Monk et al. 1989)

Related Type Name:

Short Citation:
  • Allard 1990
  • FNAI 1992a
  • FNAI 1992b
  • FNAI 2010a
  • Hatch et al. 1990
  • Monk et al. 1989
  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern U.S. unpubl. data
  • Peet et al. unpubl. data
  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.
  • Thomas and Allen 1996
States/Provinces:AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, SC
Nations:US
Range:This forest is known from the East Gulf Coastal Plain and Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. Its possible status assignment to the South Atlantic Coastal Plain is questionable.
US Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name:
Division Name:
Province Name:Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code:231   Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
Section Name:Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code:232B     Occurrence Status:Confident or certain
No Data Available
This association differs from genuine beech-magnolia forests (of farther south or of more mesic environments) by having Magnolia grandiflora, if present at all, confined to the lower woody strata and not present in the canopy. Typical stands of this association contain a canopy dominated by Fagus grandifolia and Quercus alba, with Nyssa sylvatica, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus hemisphaerica (this more prevalent on upper slopes). The more-or-less open subcanopy contains Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia macrophylla, Ostrya virginiana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer rubrum, and Cornus florida. Shrubs and woody vines are relatively sparse; the shrub stratum may be more diverse than the herbaceous one. Shrubs include Aesculus pavia, Arundinaria gigantea, Hamamelis virginiana, Vaccinium elliottii, Ilex decidua, Symplocos tinctoria, Asimina parviflora, and Hypericum hypericoides. Woody vines include Vitis rotundifolia, Gelsemium sempervirens, and Toxicodendron radicans. The herbaceous stratum includes Smilax pumila, Polystichum acrostichoides, Mitchella repens, Arisaema triphyllum, Aristolochia serpentaria, Hexastylis arifolia var. callifolia?, Euphorbia corollata, Scutellaria elliptica, Dichanthelium boscii, Chasmanthium sessiliflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Trillium sp., Carex spp., Dioscorea villosa, and the epiphyte Pleopeltis polypodioides (= Polypodium polypodioides).
These forests are found in ravines, slopes, and other sheltered, shaded, concave environments of the Coastal Plain. In some areas this association grades up into forests dominated or codominated by Quercus hemisphaerica, or which contain Quercus falcata, Quercus stellata, Pinus taeda, and Juniperus virginiana.
Moderate
No Data Available
Authors:
S. Landaal and M. Pyne      Version Date: 24Oct2002


References:
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
  • FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 1992a. Natural communities. Unpublished document. The Nature Conservancy, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. 6 pp.
  • FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 1992b. Natural community classification. Unpublished document. The Nature Conservancy, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. 16 pp.
  • FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 2010a. Guide to the natural communities of Florida: 2010 edition. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee, FL.
  • Hatch, S. L., K. N. Gandhi, and L. E. Brown. 1990. Checklist of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M University System, College Station. 158 pp.
  • Monk, C. D., D. W. Imm, R. L. Potter, and G. G. Parker. 1989. A classification of the deciduous forest of eastern North America. Vegetatio 80:167-181.
  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.
  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.
  • Thomas, R. D., and C. M. Allen. 1996. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana. Volume II: Dicotyledons Acanthaceae - Euphorbiaceae. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge, LA. 213 pp.


USNVC Credits: Detailed Description of the National Vegetation Classification Types

Date Accessed:

To cite a description:
Author(s). publicationYear. Description Title [last revised revisionDate]. United States National Vegetation Classification. Federal Geographic Data Committee, Washington, D.C.

About spatial standards:
The United States Federal Geographic Data Committee (hereafter called the FGDC) is tasked to develop geospatial data standards that will enable sharing of spatial data among producers and users and support the growing National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), acting under the Office of Management Budget (OMB) Circular A-16 (OMB 1990, 2000) and Executive Order #12906 (Clinton 1994) as amended by Executive Order #13286 (Bush 2003). FGDC subcommittees and working groups, in consultation and cooperation with state, local, tribal, private, academic, and international communities, develop standards for the content, quality, and transferability of geospatial data. FGDC standards are developed through a structured process, integrated with one another to the extent possible, supportable by the current vendor community (but are independent of specific technologies), and publicly available.

About this document
This document contains type descriptions at the Association level of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. These descriptions were primarily written by NatureServe ecologists in collaboration with Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation Subcommittee and a wide variety of state, federal and private partners as a part of the implementation of the National Vegetation Classification. Formation descriptions were written by the Hierarchy Revisions Working Group. The descriptions are based on consultation with natural resource professionals, published literature, and other vegetation classification systems. The Ecological Society of America's Panel on Vegetation Classification is responsible for managing the review and formal adoption of these types into the National Vegetation Classification. Partners involved in the implementation of the USNVC include:

U.S. Government
  • Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Department of Commerce (DOC)
  • Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Department of the Interior (USDI)
  • Forest Service (FS) - Chair
  • National Agriculture Statistical Service (NASS)
  • Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
  • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)
  • U.S. Navy (NAVY)
  • Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
  • Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
  • National Park Service (NPS)
  • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Non U.S. Government
  • NatureServe (NS)
  • Ecological Society of America (ESA)

Disclaimer:
Given the dynamic nature of the standard, it is possible a type description is incomplete or in revision at the time of download; therefore, users of the data should track the date of access and read the revisions section of the USNVC.org website to understand the current status of the classification. While USNVC data have undergone substantial review prior to posting, it is possible that some errors or inaccuracies have remained undetected.

For information on the process used to develop these descriptions see:

Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, D. Tart, B. Hoagland, C. Josse, G. Navarro, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, A. Weakley, P. Comer. 2014. EcoVeg: A new approach to vegetation description and classification. Ecological Monographs 84:533-561 (erratum 85:473).

Franklin, S., D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Jennings, T. Keeler-Wolf, O. Loucks, A. McKerrow, R.K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2012. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification. Annali di Botanica 2: 1-9.

Jennings, M. D., D. Faber-Langendoen, O. L. Louckes, R. K. Peet, and D. Roberts. 2009. Standards for associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs 79(2):173-199.

FGDC [Federal Geographic Data Committee]. 2008. Vegetation Classification Standard, FGDC-STD-005, Version 2. Washington, DC., USA. [http://www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/vegetation/NVCS_V2_FINAL_2008-02.pdf]

For additional information contact:

  • Implementation of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification Standard - Alexa McKerrow (amckerrow@usgs.gov)
  • NatureServe's Development of NVC Type Descriptions - Don Faber-Langendoen (don_faber- langendoen@natureserve.org)
  • Ecological Society of America's Review of the Type Descriptions Scott.Franklin@unco.edu
  • Federal Geographic Data Committee - Vegetation Subcommittee's Activities - Marianne Burke (mburke@fs.fed.us)