Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program: Oregon
Education, Research and Technical Assistance for Managing Our Natural Resources

Oregon Staff Member


Ashlee Mikkelsen

Email: ashlee.mikkelsen@gmail.com
Research Publications Publication Date
Yackulic, CB, LL Bailey, KM Dugger, RJ Davis, AB Franklin, ED Forsman, SH Ackers, LS Andrews, LV Diller, SA Gremel, KA, Hamm, DR Herter, JM Higley, RB Horn, C McCafferty, JA Reid, JT Rockweit, and, SG Sovern. 2019. The past and future roles of competition and habitat in the range-wide occupancy dynamics of northern spotted owls: Ecological Applications, 29(3), doi.org/10.1002/eap.1861. 2019-04-30
Sovern, S.G., E.D. Forsman, K.M. Dugger, and M.Taylor. 2015. Habitat use by northern spotted owls during natal dispersal. Journal of Wildlife Management 79:254-262. 2015-01-31
Sovern, S.G., D.B. Lesmeister, K.M. Dugger, M.S. Pruett, R.J. Davis, and J.M. Jenkins. 2019. Activity Center Selection by Northern Spotted Owls. Journal of Wildlife Management 000:000-000, DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.21632 2019-01-31
Schilling, J.W., K.M. Dugger and R.G. Anthony. 2013. Survival and home-range size of northern spotted owls in southwestern Oregon. Journal of Raptor Research 47:1-14. 2013-03-31
Olson, GS, RG Anthony, ED Forsman, SH Ackers, PJ Loschl, JA Reid, KM Dugger, EM Glenn, and WJ Ripple. 2005. Modeling of site occupancy dynamics of northern spotted owls in Oregon, including the effects of barred owl encroachment. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:918-932. 2005-10-31
Miller, M.P., Haig, S.M., Forsman, E.D., Anthony, R.G., Diller, L., Dugger, K.M., Franklin, A.B., Gremel, S.A., Lesmeister, D.B., Higley, M., Herter, D.R., Sovern, S.G., 2018, Variation in inbreeding rates across the range of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina)- insights from over 30 years of monitoring data: The Auk: Ornithological Advances, v. 135, no. 4, p. 821-833, https://doi.org/10.1642/AUK-18-1.1. 2018-07-31
Jenkins, JMA, DB. Lesmeister, ED Forsman, KM Dugger, SH Ackers, LS Andrews, CE McCafferty, MS Pruett, JA Reid, SG Sovern, RB Horn, SA Gremel, JD Wiens, and Z Yang. 2019. Social status, forest disturbance, and barred owls shape long-term trends in breeding dispersal distance of Northern Spotted Owls. The Condor 121:1–17, DOI: 10.1093/condor/duz055 2019-12-31
Forsman, ED, RG Anthony, KM Dugger, EM Glenn, AB Franklin, GC White, CJ Schwarz, KP Burnham, DR Anderson, JD Nichols, JE Hines, JB Lint, RJ Davis, SH Ackers, LS Andrews, BL Biswell, PC Carlson, LV Diller, SA Gremel, DR Herter, JM Higley, RB Horn, JA Reid, J Rockweit, J Schaberel, TJ Snetsinger, and SG Sovern. 2011. Population demography of northern spotted owls. Studies in Avian Biology 40. 2011-09-30
Dugger, KM, RG Anthony, and LS Andrews. 2011. Transient dynamics of invasive competition: barred owls, spotted owls and the demons of competition present. Ecological Applications 21:2459-2468. 2011-10-31
Dugger, KM, FF Wagner, RG Anthony, GS Olson. 2005. The relationship between habitat characteristics and demographic performance of Northern Spotted Owls in southern Oregon. Condor 107:865-880. 2005-10-31
Dugger, K. M., E. D. Forsman, A. B. Franklin, R. J. Davis, G. C. White, C. J. Schwarz, K. P. Burnham, J. D. Nichols, J. E. Hines, C. B. Yackulic, P. F. Doherty, Jr., L. Bailey, D. A. Clark, S. H. Ackers, L. S. Andrews, B. Augustine, B. L. Biswell, J. Blakesley, P. C. Carlson, Matthew J. Clement, L. V. Diller, E. M. Glenn, A. Green, S. A. Gremel, D. R. Herter, J. M. Higley, J. Hobson, R. B. Horn, K. P. Huyvaert, C. McCafferty, T. McDonald, K. McDonnell, G. S. Olson, J. A. Reid, J. Rockweit, V. Ruiz, J. Saenz, S. G. Sovern. 2016. The effects of habitat, climate and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls. The Condor: Ornithological Applications Volume 118:57–116, DOI: 10.1650/CONDOR-15-24.1 2016-02-28
Duchac, L.S., D.B. Lesmeister, K.M. Dugger, Z.J. Ruff, and R.J. Davis. 2020. Passive acoustic monitoring effectively detects Northern Spotted Owls and Barred Owls over a range of forest conditions. The Condor 122: 1–22, DOI: 10.1093/condor/duaa017. 2020-04-30
Diller, L, K Hamm, D Early, D Lamphear, K Dugger, C Yackulic, C Schwarz, P. Carlson, and T McDonald. 2016. Demographic response of Northern Spotted Owls to Barred Owl removal in Coastal Northern California. Journal of Wildlife Management 80:691-707, DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.1046. 2016-04-30
Davis, RJ, and KM Dugger. 2011. Northwest forest plan–the first 15 years (1994–2008): status and trends of Northern Spotted Owl populations and habitat. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-850. 2011-10-31
Anthony, RG, ED Forsman, AB Franklin, DR Anderson, KP Burnham, GC White, CJ Schwarz, JD Nichols, JE Hines, GS Olson, SH Ackers, S Andrews, BL Biswell, PC Carlson, LV Diller, KM Dugger, KE Fehring, TL Fleming, RP Gerhardt, SA Gremel, RJ Gutiérrez, PJ Happe, DR Herter, JM Higley, RB Horn, LL Irwin, PJ Loschl, JA Reid, SS Sovern. 2006. Status and trends in demography of Northern Spotted Owls, 1985-2003. Wildlife Monographs 163:1-47. 2006-10-31
Ackers, S.H., R.J. Davis, K.A. Olsen, and K.M. Dugger. 2014. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): a comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat, and LiDAR based habitat maps. Remote Sensing of Environment 156:361-373. 2014-10-31
Presentations Presentation Date
Rockweit, J.T., D.B. Lesmeister, K.M. Dugger, A.B. Franklin, J.M. Higley, R.J. Davis, and Z. Yang. 2019. A meta-analysis of the impacts of wildfire on the apparent survival, recruitment, and movement rates of northern spotted owls. Oregon Chapter of the Wildlife Society 2019 Annual Meeting, Feb. 27 - March 1, Bend, OR. 2019-02-27
Pruett, S., R.J. Davis, K.M. Dugger, J. Jenkins, D. Lesmeister, S. Sovern. 2018. ASSESSING NORTHERN SPOTTED OWL NEST-SITE SELECTION WITH A LIDAR-BASED CANOPY COVER MODEL . oint annual meeting of the Oregon Chapter of The Wildlife Society, the Washington Chapter of The Wildlife Society, the Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Ecology, and the Northwestern Partners in Amphibians and Reptile Conservation. Portland, OR, Feb 13-16, 2018. 2018-02-13
Pruett, S., R.J. Davis, K.M. Dugger, J. Jenkins, D. Lesmeister, S. Sovern. 2017. Using LiDAR Data and a Bayesian Framework to Model Northern Spotted Owl Nest Site Selection . The Joint Meeting of the American Ornithological Society and the Society of Canadian Ornithologist/Société des Ornithologistes du Canada, East Lansing, MI, July 31-August 5, 2017. 2017-07-31
Mikkelsen, A.J., K.M. Dugger, and D.B. Lesmeister. 2020. You Need Some Meat on Those Bones! The Effect of Weight and Time on Northern Spotted Owl Recruitment. 2020 Annual Meeting of the Washington Chapter of The Wildlife Society, Spokane, WA, April 28-May 1, 2020. 2020-04-28
Mikkelsen, A.J., K.M. Dugger, D.B. Lesmeister, and K.M. O’Reilly. 2019. Spatio-temporal Dynamics and Effects of Stress on Juvenile Northern Spotted Owls. Oregon Chapter of the Wildlife Society 2019 Annual Meeting, Feb. 27 - March 1, Bend, OR. 2019-02-27
Mikkelsen, A.J., K.M. Dugger, D.B. Lesmeister, and K.M. O'Reilly. 2020. Patterns in Juvenile Northern Spotted Owl Feather Corticosterone Relative to Environmental and Individual Variation. 2020 Annual Meeting of the Washington Chapter of The Wildlife Society, Spokane, WA, April 28-May 1, 2020. 2020-04-28
Mikkelsen, A.J., K.M. Dugger, D.B. Lesmeister, and K.M. O'Reilly. 2020. Using Stress Hormones to Link the Environment to Apparent Survival in Non-Territorial Northern Spotted Owls. Oregon Chapter of The Wildlife Society's Annual Meeting, February 4-7, 2020, Eugene, OR. 2020-02-05
Mangan, AO, T Chestnut, JC Vogler, IK Breckheimer, WM King, KE Bagnall and KM Dugger. 2019. Factors related to occupancy dynamics and breeding propensity of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in a protected area: habitat, weather and Barred Owl (S. varia) presence. 137th annual meeting of the American Ornithologists Society, June 24-28, 2019, Anchorage, AK. 2019-06-24
Jenkins, JMA, DB Lesmeister, ED Forsman, and KM Dugger. 2019. Long-term dynamics of dispersal distances by adult Northern Spotted Owls. 137th annual meeting of the American Ornithologists Society, June 24-28, 2019, Anchorage, AK. 2019-06-24
Jenkins, J.M.A., D.B. Lesmeister, E.D. Forsman, K.M. Dugger, & J.D. Wiens. 2019. Shifting trends in breeding dispersal for northern spotted owls. 26th Annual Meeting of The Wildlife Society, Sept. 29-Oct 3, 2019, Reno, NV. 2019-09-29
Dugger, KM, F Wagner, R Anthony, & G Olson. 2004. The identification and evaluation of northern spotted owl habitat in relation to their demographic performance in managed forests of southwestern Oregon. Public Meeting of the SEI Northern Spotted Owl Status Review, Vancouver, WA, March 5, 2004. 2004-05-05
Dugger, KM, ED Forsman, AB Franklin, RJ Davis and 33 others. 2016. The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls. Society for Ecological Restoration Northwest regional conference, Portland, OR, April 5-7, 2016. 2016-04-05
Dugger, K.M., E.D. Forsman, D.A. Clark, R.J. Davis and 33 others. 2014. Status and trends of the Northern Spotted Owl (strix occidentalis caurina): results of a range-wide meta-analysis. 2014 Joint Annual Meeting of American Ornithologist's Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, September 22-28, 2014, Estes Park, CO. 2014-09-22
Dugger, K.M. 2014. Importance of long term data to species conservation and management: measuring vital rates at the relevant scale. 2014 Morss Colloquium, "Conservation of polar species susceptible to impacts from climate change". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Falmouth, MA. 2014-03-06
Duchac, L.S., D.B. Lesmeister, and K.M. Dugger. 2019. Who was that? Using passive acoustic monitoring to detect forest owls in the Pacific Northwest. Oregon Chapter of the Wildlife Society 2019 Annual Meeting, Feb. 27 - March 1, Bend, OR. 2019-02-27
Duchac, L.S., D.B. Lesmeister, and K.M. Dugger. 2019. Landscape use by forest owls two years after mixed-severity wildfire: novel findings using passive acoustic monitoring. 26th Annual Meeting of The Wildlife Society, Sept. 29 - Oct. 3, 2019, Reno, NV. 2019-09-29
Duchac, L., D.B. Lesmeister, and K.M. Dugger. 2018. Testing a passive acoustic approach to detect Northern Spotted Owls and Barred Owls . Joint annual meeting of the Oregon Chapter of The Wildlife Society, the Washington Chapter of The Wildlife Society, the Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Ecology, and the Northwestern Partners in Amphibians and Reptile Conservation. Portland, OR, Feb 13-16, 2018. 2018-02-13
Duchac, L., D.B. Lesmeister, and K.M. Dugger. 2018. Can passive acoustic monitoring detect and identify vocalization patterns in two congeneric forest owls in the Pacific Northwest? 89th Annual Meeting of the Northwest Science Association, Olympia WA, March 27-30, 2018 2018-03-27
Anthony, R.G., K.M. Dugger, J.D. Wiens, and E.D. Forsman. 2012. Demographic Rates of Northern Spotted Owls: Implications for recovery planning for this threatened species. IVth International Wildlife Management Congress, Durban, South Africa, July 9-12, 2012. 2012-07-11
Ackers, S.H., R.J. Davis, and K.M. Dugger. 2014. EVALUATION OF NORTHERN SPOTTED OWL (STRIX OCCIDENTALIS CAURINA) HABITAT MODELS USING LIDAR-BASED VEGETATION MEASUREMENTS AND LANDSAT-IMPUTED FOREST STAND CHARACTERISTICS. Oregon TWS Annual Meeting, February 5-7, 2014, Bend OR. 2014-02-05
Technical Publications Publication Date
Dugger, KM, S. Ackers, et al. 2016. The Demography of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Willamette National Forest, Oregon. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report, 52pp. 2016-12-31
Dugger, KM, S Andrews, et al. 2019. Demographic Characteristics and Ecology of Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the Southern Oregon Cascades. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report. 27p. 2020-02-28
Dugger, KM, S Andrews, et al. 2018. Demographic Characteristics and Ecology of Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the Southern Oregon Cascades. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report. 28p. 2019-03-31
Dugger, KM, S Andrews, et al. 2017. Demographic Characteristics and Ecology of Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the Southern Oregon Cascades. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report. 33p. 2018-01-31
Dugger, KM, S Andrews, et al. 2016. Demographic Characteristics and Ecology of Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the Southern Oregon Cascades. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report. 33p. 2016-12-31
Dugger, KM, S Andrews, et al. 2015. Demographic Characteristics and Ecology of Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the Southern Oregon Cascades. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report. 33p. 2015-12-31
Dugger, KM, S Andrews, et al. 2014. Demographic Characteristics and Ecology of Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the Southern Oregon Cascades. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report. 24p. 2014-12-31
Dugger, KM, S Andrews, et al. 2013. Demographic Characteristics and Ecology of Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the Southern Oregon Cascades. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report. 23p. 2013-12-31
Dugger, KM, S Andrews, et al. 2012. Demographic Characteristics and Ecology of Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the Southern Oregon Cascades. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report. 25p. 2012-12-31
Dugger, KM, S Andrews et al. 2011. Demographic Characteristics and Ecology of Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the Southern Oregon Cascades. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 30p. 2011-01-31
Dugger, KM, S Ackers, et al. 2019. The Demography of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Willamette National Forest, Oregon. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report, 66pp. 2019-12-31
Dugger, KM, S Ackers, et al. 2018. The Demography of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Willamette National Forest, Oregon. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report, 59pp. 2018-10-31
Dugger, KM, S Ackers, et al. 2017. The Demography of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Willamette National Forest, Oregon. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report, 59pp. 2018-01-31
Dugger, KM, S Ackers, et al. 2014. The Demography of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Willamette National Forest, Oregon. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report, 51pp. 2014-12-31
Dugger, KM, S Ackers, et al. 2013. The Demography of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Willamette National Forest, Oregon. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report, 51pp. 2013-12-31
Dugger, KM, S Ackers, et al. 2012. The Demography of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Willamette National Forest, Oregon. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report, 55pp. 2012-12-31
Dugger, KM, S Ackers et al. 2015. The Demography of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Willamette National Forest, Oregon. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Annual Progress Report, 52pp. 2015-12-31
Dugger, KM, S Ackers et al. 2011. The Demography of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Willamette National Forest, Oregon. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 51p. 2011-01-31
Dugger, KM, RG Anthony, and LS Lawrence. 2008. Site occupancy dynamics of Northern Spotted Owls relative to Barred Owl occurrence and forest habitat characteristics in the southern Cascades of Oregon. 40pp. Unpublished report on file with: Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331. 2008-07-31
Dugger, KM, RG Anthony, and E Forsman. 2009. Estimating Northern Spotted Owl Detection Probabilities: Updating the USFWS Northern Spotted Owl Survey Protocol. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Corvallis, OR 2009-10-31
Dugger, KM, RG Anthony, S Andrews, and F Wagner. 2006. Modeling apparent survival and reproductive success of Northern Spotted Owls relative to forest habitat in the southern Cascades of Oregon. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Corvallis, OR. 2006-05-31
Dugger, KM, F Wagner, and RG Anthony. 2005. Identification and evaluation of northern spotted owl habitat in managed forests of southwestern Oregon and the development of silvicultural systems for managing such habitat. Report on Step 3: Predicting northern spotted owl survival and reproductive success from habitat characteristics of managed forests of southwestern Oregon. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Corvallis, OR. 2005-01-31
Dugger KM, and LS Andrews. 2017. Apparent occupancy and the reproductive rates of Northern Spotted Owls in the Ashland Watershed, Siskiyou Mountains, southern Oregon 1993-1997, 2005-2016. Annual Report. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 20pp. 2017-05-31
Dugger KM, and LS Andrews. 2016. Apparent occupancy and the reproductive rates of Northern Spotted Owls in the Ashland Watershed, Siskiyou Mountains, southern Oregon 1993-1997, 2005-2015. Annual Report. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 17pp. 2016-05-31
Dugger KM, T Tippin, and LS Andrews. 2015. Apparent occupancy and the reproductive rates of Northern Spotted Owls in the Ashland Watershed, Siskiyou Mountains, southern Oregon 1993-1997, 2005-2014. Annual Report. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 17pp. 2015-07-31
Dugger KM, LS Andrews, et al. 2018. Apparent occupancy and the reproductive rates of Northern Spotted Owls in the Ashland Watershed, Siskiyou Mountains, southern Oregon 1993-1997, 2005-2017. Annual Report. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (OCFWRU), Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 19pp. 2018-07-31
Dugger KM, JW Schilling, RG Anthony, and LS Andrews. 2011. Apparent occupancy and the reproductive rates of Northern Spotted Owls in the Ashland Watershed, Siskiyou Mountains, southern Oregon 1993-1997, 2005-2011. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Corvallis, OR 2011-12-31
Anthony, RG, FF Wagner, K Dugger, and G Olson. 2002. Identification and evaluation of northern spotted owl habitat in managed forests of southwestern Oregon and the development of silvicultural systems for managing such habitat: Report on Step 2: Analysis of habitat characteristics and owl demography on three density study areas. Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Corvallis, OR. 2002-09-30
Anthony, RG, ED Forsman, AB Franklin, DR Anderson, KP Burnham, GC White, CJ Schwarz, JD Nichols, JE Hines, GS Olson, SH Ackers, S Andrews, BL Biswell, PC Carlson, LV Diller, KM Dugger, KE Fehring, TL Fleming, RP Gerhardt, SA Gremel, RJ Gutiérrez, PJ Happe, DR Herter, JM Higley, RB Horn, LL Irwin, PJ Loschl, JA Reid, SS Sovern. 2004. Status and trends in demography of Northern Spotted Owls, 1985-2003. Final Report to Interagency Regional Monitoring Program, Portland, OR (peer-reviewed by 4 ESA members). Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Corvallis, OR. 2004-04-30