Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program: Arkansas
Education, Research and Technical Assistance for Managing Our Natural Resources

Arkansas Project

Body Condition Index of Overwintering Mallards in Arkansas

August 2019 - May 2022


Participating Agencies

  • Ducks Unlimited
  • Arkansas Game and Fish Commission
  • Harry and Jo Leggett Fellowship

Many waterfowl species spend the winter in the southern United States before migrating north to breeding grounds in the spring. During the harsh winter, these birds must maintain or gain weight in order to successfully attain mates, migrate north, and immediately initiate reproduction. Body mass should directly be linked to food availability and environmental conditions. Working with the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission and Ducks Unlimited, graduate student John Veon, former unit leader David Krementz and I are using newly collected data in conjunction with historic data from the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s to examine how mallard body mass varies across time. We will then examine how fine scale environmental variables (precipitation and temperature) influence body mass. Finally, we will relate body mass of hunter collected ducks with the surrounding land management practices to examine how waterfowl management practices are effecting waterfowl body mass and health. These results should be directly applicable to the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission's management efforts to increase food availability for this economically important species.

Research Publications Publication Date
Veon, J.T., D.G. Krementz, L.W. Naylor, B.A. DeGregorio. 2023. Effects of landscape composition on winter mallard (Anas platyrhnchos) body condition in Eastern Arkansas. Journal of Wildlife Management | Abstract | Download November 2023
Veon, J.T., B.A. DeGregorio, L.W. Naylor, K.J. Reinecke, B.C. Dabbert, D.W. Demarest, K.M. Hartke, and D.G. Krementz. 2023. Body mass dynamics in wintering mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the lower mississippi alluvial valley. Global Ecology and Conservation 41: e02368 | Download January 2023
Presentations Presentation Date
Veon, J.V., B.A. DeGregorio, L.W. Naylor, K.J. Reinecke, B.C. Dabbert, D.W. Damarest, K.M. Hartke, and D.G. Krementz. Body Mass Dynamics in Wintering Waterfowl in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. North American Duck Symposium. February 2023
Veon, J., B.A. DeGregorio, D.G. Krementz, and L. Naylor. 2021. Trends in Mallard Body Mass in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley 1979-2021. The Wildlife Society Annual Conference. November 2021
Veon, J. and B.A. DeGregorio. Habitat management for overwintering mallards: is it effective? March 2020
Theses and Dissertations Publication Date
McClain, J. C. 2017. Effects of northern bobwhite habitat management on raccoon abundance, habitat use, and home range in Southwest Missouri. Thesis. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. August 2017
John Veon. 2021. Body mass and body condition variation of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) within and among winters within the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Master's Thesis December 2021