Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program: Virginia
Education, Research and Technical Assistance for Managing Our Natural Resources

Virginia Project

Post WNS bat ecology in the eastern United States

January 2013 - December 2023


Participating Agencies

  • Navy Facilities and Engineering Command
  • Army Installation Command
  • Virginia Dept. Transportation
  • USGS Biology Disease Directorate
  • NPS National Capital Region
  • USFWS Virginia Field Office
  • NPS NE Region WNS Program
  • Legacy
  • Virginia Dept. Game and Inland Fisheries
  • Air Force, Langley AFB
  • NPS National Capital Region WNS Program
  • Joint Fire Science Program
  • Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries
  • National Council for Air and Stream Improvement
  • NASA
  • NPS Northeastern Region
  • USFWS Regions 3, 4, and 5
  • Fort Meade Military Reservation
  • Virginia Field Office
  • Region 5
  • USFWS Region 4
  • WNS Response Program
  • Army Installation Command, Ft. A.P. Hill
  • Capital Areas Region
  • Disease Cyclical
  • US Army Fort AP HIll

This project is a comprehensive investigation of the foraging and roosting ecology and distribution of bats in the mid-Atlantic and Northeast following White-nose Syndrome with emphasis on the threatened Northern long-eared bat and the endangered Indiana bat. Work has expanding to encompass Coastal Plain bat ecology including migratory patterns of non-hibernating bats. Project cooperators include US Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Department of Defense, NASA, and numerous state agencies and NGOs throughout the region.

Research Publications Publication Date
Austin, L., A. Silvis, W.M. Ford and K.E. Powers. 2019. Effects of historic wildfire and prescribed fire on site occupancy of bats in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. Journal of Forestry Research 2019-04-30
Austin, L., A. Silvis, W.M. Ford, K.E. Powers and M. Muthersbaugh. 2017. Bat Activity Following Restoration Prescribed Burning in the Central Appalachian Upland and Riparian Habitats. Natural Areas Journal 38:183-195 2018-04-30
Austin, L.V., A.S. Silvis, M.S. Muthersbaugh, K.E. Powers and W.M. Ford. 2018. Bat Activity Following Repeated Prescribed Fire in the Central Appalachians. Fire Ecology 14:10* 2018-12-31
Ford. W.M., A. Silvis, J.L. Rodrigue, A. Kniowski and J.B. Johnson. 2016. Deriving habitat models for northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) from historical detection data: A case study using long-term research on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 7(1): 86-98 | Abstract 2016-06-30
Huth, John K.; Silvis, Alexander; Moosman, Paul R. Jr.; Ford, W. Mark; and Sweeten, Sara. 2017. "A Comparison of Survey Methods for Documenting Presence of Myotis leibii (Eastern Small-Footed Bats) at Roosting Areas in Western Virginia," Virginia Journal of Science: Vol. 66 : No. 4 , Article 3. 2017-06-30
Jachowski, D.S., C.A. Dobony, L.S. Coleman, W.M. Ford, E.R. Britzke, and J.L. Rodrigue. 2014. Disease and community assemblage: white-nose syndrome alters spatial and temporal niche partitioning in sympatric bat species. Diversity and Distributions 20:1002- 1015 | Abstract 2014-04-30
Jachowski, D.S., C.M.B. Jachowski, and W.M. Ford 2014. Is white-nose syndrome causing insectivory release and altering ecosystem function in the eastern US? Bat Research News 55:21-24 2014-10-31
Jachowski, D.S., C.T. Rota, C. Dobony, W.M. Ford and J.W. Edwards. 2016. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Considering Roost-Site Selection at Multiple Spatial Scales.PLoS ONE 11(3): e0150011. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150011 2016-03-31
Jachowski, D.S., J.B. Johnson, C.A. Dobony, J.W. Edwards and W.M. Ford. 2014. Space Use and Resource Selection by Foraging Indiana Bats at Their Northern Distribution. Endangered Species Research 24:149-157 2014-06-30
Karen E. Powers , Richard J. Reynolds , Wil Orndorff, W. Mark Ford. 2015. Post-White-nose Syndrome Trends in Virginia’s Cave Bats, 2008-2013 Journal of Ecology and Natural Environment 6:56-64 | Abstract 2015-04-30
Muthersbaugh, M.S., W.M. Ford, A. Silvis and K.E. Powers. 2019. Activity patterns of cave-dwelling bat species during pre-hibernation swarming and post-hibernation emergence in the central Appalachians. Diversity 2019, 11, 159; doi:10.3390/d11090159 2019-09-30
Muthersbaugh MS, Ford WM, Powers KE, Silvis A. 2019. Activity patterns of bats during the fall and spring along ridgelines in the central Appalachians. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 10(1):180–195; e1944-687X. 2019-06-30
Nocera, T., W.M. Ford, A. Silvis and C.A. Dobony. 2019. Patterns of acoustical activity of bats prior to and 10 years after WNS. Global Ecology and Conservation. 18: 2019-05-31
Nocera, T., W.M. Ford, A. Silvis and C.A. Dobony. 2019. Let’s Agree To Disagree: Comparing Auto-Acoustic Identification Programs for Northeastern Bats. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 10:346-361. 2019-12-31
Nocera, T., W.M. Ford, A. Silvis and C.A. Dobony. 2020. WNS-induced temporal and spatial changes in little brown (Myotis lucifugus) acoustic activity on Fort drum Army Installation. Acta Chiropterilogica 22:135-146 2020-07-31
Patriquin, K.J.,M.L. Leonard, H.G. Broders, W.M.Ford, E.R. Britzke, and A. Silvis 2016. Weather as a proximate explanation for fission-fusion dynamics in female northern long-eared bats. Animal Behaviour 122:47-57 2016-11-30
Powers, K.E.., R.J. Reynolds , W. Orndorff, B. A. Hyzy, C. S. Hobson, and W. M. Ford. 2016. Monitoring the status of Gray Bats (Myotis grisescens) in Virginia, 2009-2014, and potential impacts of White-nose Syndrome. Southeastern Naturalist 15:127-137 2016-04-30
Reynolds, R., K.E. Powers, W. Orndorff, W.M. Ford and C. Hobson. 2016, Changes in Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) Capture Rates and Demographics in Western Virginia; Pre and Post White-nose Syndrome. Northeastern Naturalist 15(1):127-137 2016-05-31
Riedel, B.L., K.R. Russell and W.M. Ford. 2012. Physical condition, sex, and age-class of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in forested and open habitats of West Virginia. International Journal of Zoology. doi:10.1155/2012/623730. 8 p. | Publisher Website 2012-07-31
Silvis, A., N. Abaid, W.M. Ford and E.R. Britzke. 2016. Responses of bat social groups to roost loss: More questions than answers. pages 261-280 in: Sociality in Bats. Jorge Ortega (ed). Springer International. 301 p. | Download 2016-06-30
Silvis, A., R. W. Perry and W.M. Ford. 2016. Relationships of Three Species of White-nose Syndrome-Impacted Bats to Forest Condition and Management. US Forest Service Southern Research Station General Technical Report. SRS–214, Ashville, NC. 57p 2016-08-31
St. Germain, M.J., A.B. Kniowski, A. Silvis and W.M. Ford. 2017. Who Knew? First Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) Maternity Colony in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Northeastern Naturalist 24:N5-N10. 2017-03-31
Silvis, A., W.M. Ford and E.R. Britzke. 2015. Day-roost tree selection by northern long-eared bats– What do random tree comparisons and one year of data really tell us? Global Ecology and Conservation 3:756-763 | Abstract 2015-04-30
Hyzy, B., R.E. Russell, A. Silvis, W.M. Ford, J. Riddle, and K. Russell. 2020. Investigating maternity roost selection of Northern long-eared bats at three sites in Wisconsin. Endangered Species Research. 41:55-65. 2020-01-31
Theses and Dissertations Publication Date
Austin, L.V. 2017. Impacts of Fire on Bats in the Central Appalachians. MS Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 2017-05-31
Muthersbaugh, M.S. 2018. Seasonal activity Patterns of Bats in the Central Appalachians. MS Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg. p 167 2018-03-31
Nocera, T (2018) Assessing the long-term lmpacts of White-nose Syndrome on bat communities using acoustic surveys at Fort Drum Military Installation. MS Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg. p 133 2018-05-31
Silvis, A. 2014. Social Day-roosting Ecology of the Northern Long-eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis). PhD Dissertation. VPI&SU, Blacksburg. 163 p. 2014-03-31