Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program: Virginia
Education, Research and Technical Assistance for Managing Our Natural Resources

Virginia Project

Post WNS bat ecology in the eastern United States

January 2013 - December 2024


Participating Agencies

  • Fort AP Hill
  • R5 WNS Program
  • USFWS Region 4
  • Navy Facilities and Engineering Command
  • NPS Northeastern Region
  • NPS NE Region WNS Program
  • Legacy
  • USGS Energy and Wildlife
  • TVA
  • NPS National Capital Region WNS Program
  • USGS Biology Disease Directorate
  • Capital Areas Region
  • Army Installation Command
  • USFWS Regions 3, 4, and 5
  • Disease Cyclical
  • Region 4 SSP
  • Shenandoah National Park
  • National Council for Air and Stream Improvement
  • Virginia Dept Wildlife Resources
  • Virginia Field Office
  • Monongahela National Forest
  • Region 5
  • Virginia Dept. Transportation
  • Air Force, Langley AFB
  • USFWS Virginia Field Office
  • Joint Fire Science Program
  • NASA
  • National Capital Region
  • WNS Response Program
  • Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries
  • Ecosystems
  • NPS National Capital Region
  • Fort Meade Military Reservation
  • National Park Service
  • NPS Northeast Region
  • Virginia Dept. Game and Inland Fisheries
  • US Army Fort AP HIll

This project is a comprehensive investigation of the foraging and roosting ecology and distribution of bats in the mid-Atlantic and Northeast following White-nose Syndrome with emphasis on the threatened Northern long-eared bat and the endangered Indiana bat. Work has expanding to encompass Coastal Plain bat ecology including migratory patterns of non-hibernating bats. Project cooperators include US Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Department of Defense, NASA, and numerous state agencies and NGOs throughout the region.

Research Publications Publication Date
St. Germain, M.J., A.B. Kniowski, A. Silvis and W.M. Ford. 2017. Who Knew? First Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) Maternity Colony in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Northeastern Naturalist 24:N5-N10. March 2017
Silvis, A., W.M. Ford and E.R. Britzke. 2015. Day-roost tree selection by northern long-eared bats– What do random tree comparisons and one year of data really tell us? Global Ecology and Conservation 3:756-763 | Abstract April 2015
Silvis, A., R. W. Perry and W.M. Ford. 2016. Relationships of Three Species of White-nose Syndrome-Impacted Bats to Forest Condition and Management. US Forest Service Southern Research Station General Technical Report. SRS–214, Ashville, NC. 57p August 2016
Silvis, A., N. Abaid, W.M. Ford and E.R. Britzke. 2016. Responses of bat social groups to roost loss: More questions than answers. pages 261-280 in: Sociality in Bats. Jorge Ortega (ed). Springer International. 301 p. | Download June 2016
Riedel, B.L., K.R. Russell and W.M. Ford. 2012. Physical condition, sex, and age-class of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in forested and open habitats of West Virginia. International Journal of Zoology. doi:10.1155/2012/623730. 8 p. | Publisher Website July 2012
Reynolds, R., K.E. Powers, W. Orndorff, W.M. Ford and C. Hobson. 2016, Changes in Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) Capture Rates and Demographics in Western Virginia; Pre and Post White-nose Syndrome. Northeastern Naturalist 15(1):127-137 May 2016
Powers, K.E.., R.J. Reynolds , W. Orndorff, B. A. Hyzy, C. S. Hobson, and W. M. Ford. 2016. Monitoring the status of Gray Bats (Myotis grisescens) in Virginia, 2009-2014, and potential impacts of White-nose Syndrome. Southeastern Naturalist 15:127-137 April 2016
Patriquin, K.J.,M.L. Leonard, H.G. Broders, W.M.Ford, E.R. Britzke, and A. Silvis 2016. Weather as a proximate explanation for fission-fusion dynamics in female northern long-eared bats. Animal Behaviour 122:47-57 November 2016
Nocera, T., W.M. Ford, A. Silvis and C.A. Dobony. 2020. Temporal and spatial changes in Myotis lucifugus acoustic activity before and after white-nose syndrome on Fort Drum Army Installation, New York, USA. Acta Chiropterlogica 22:135-146 July 2020
Nocera, T., W.M. Ford, A. Silvis and C.A. Dobony. 2019. Patterns of acoustical activity of bats prior to and 10 years after WNS. Global Ecology and Conservation. 18: May 2019
Nocera, T., W.M. Ford, A. Silvis and C.A. Dobony. 2019. Let’s Agree To Disagree: Comparing Auto-Acoustic Identification Programs for Northeastern Bats. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 10:346-361. December 2019
Muthersbaugh, M.S., W.M. Ford, A. Silvis and K.E. Powers. 2019. Activity patterns of cave-dwelling bat species during pre-hibernation swarming and post-hibernation emergence in the central Appalachians. Diversity 2019, 11, 159; doi:10.3390/d11090159 September 2019
Muthersbaugh MS, Ford WM, Powers KE, Silvis A. 2019. Activity patterns of bats during the fall and spring
along ridgelines in the central Appalachians. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 10(1):180–195; e1944-687X.
June 2019
Karen E. Powers , Richard J. Reynolds , Wil Orndorff, W. Mark Ford. 2015. Post-White-nose Syndrome Trends in Virginia’s Cave Bats, 2008-2013 Journal of Ecology and Natural Environment 6:56-64 | Abstract April 2015
Kalen, N.J., M.S. Muthersbaugh, J.B. Johnson, A. Silvis and W.M. Ford. 2022. Northern long-eared bats in the Central Appalachians following white-nose syndrome: failed maternity colonies? Journal of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 9: 159-167 March 2022
Jachowski, D.S., J.B. Johnson, C.A. Dobony, J.W. Edwards and W.M. Ford. 2014. Space Use and Resource Selection by Foraging Indiana Bats at Their Northern Distribution. Endangered Species Research 24:149-157 June 2014
Jachowski, D.S., C.T. Rota, C. Dobony, W.M. Ford and J.W. Edwards. 2016. Seeing the Forest through the Trees:
Considering Roost-Site Selection at Multiple
Spatial Scales.PLoS ONE 11(3): e0150011.
March 2016
Jachowski, D.S., C.M.B. Jachowski, and W.M. Ford 2014. Is white-nose syndrome causing insectivory release and altering ecosystem function in the eastern US? Bat Research News 55:21-24 October 2014
Jachowski, D.S., C.A. Dobony, L.S. Coleman, W.M. Ford, E.R. Britzke, and J.L. Rodrigue. 2014. Disease and community assemblage: white-nose syndrome alters spatial and temporal niche partitioning in sympatric bat species. Diversity and Distributions 20:1002- 1015 | Abstract April 2014
Hzyz, B., R.E. Russell, A. Silvis, W.M. Ford, J. Riddle and K. Russell. 2020. Occupancy of Northern long-eared bats in the Lake States Region. Wildlife Society Bulletin December 2020
Hyzy, B., R.E. Russell, A. Silvis, W.M. Ford, J. Riddle, and K. Russell. 2020. Investigating maternity roost selection of Northern long-eared bats at three sites in Wisconsin. Endangered Species Research. 41:55-65. January 2020
Huth, John K.; Silvis, Alexander; Moosman, Paul R. Jr.; Ford, W. Mark; and Sweeten, Sara. 2017. "A Comparison of Survey Methods for Documenting Presence of Myotis leibii (Eastern Small-Footed Bats) at Roosting Areas in Western Virginia," Virginia Journal of Science: Vol. 66 : No. 4 , Article 3. June 2017
Gorman, K.M., S.M. Deeley, E.L. Barr, S.R. Freeze, N. Kalen, M.S. Muthersbaugh, and W.M. Ford. 2022. Broad-scale geographic and temporal assessment of northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colony landscape association. Endangered Species Research 47:119-130. February 2022
Gorman, K, W.M. Ford, E.L. Barr and L. Ries. 2021. Bat Activity Patterns Relative to Temporal and Weather Correlates in a Temperate Coastal Environment. Global Ecology and Conservation 30: 13 p. October 2021
Freeze, S.R., M. Shirazi, N. Abaid, W.M. Ford, A. Silvis and D. Hakkenberg. 2021. Effects of Environmental Clutter on Synthesized Chiropteran Echolocation Signals in an Anechoic Chamber. Acoustics. 3:391–410 June 2021
Ford. W.M., A. Silvis, J.L. Rodrigue, A. Kniowski and J.B. Johnson. 2016. Deriving habitat models for northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) from historical detection data: A case study using long-term research on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 7(1): 86-98 | Abstract June 2016
Ford, W.M., A. Silvis, J.B. Johnson, J.W. Edwards and M. Karp. 2016. Northern long-eared bat day-roosting and prescribed fire in the central Appalachians. Fire Ecology 12:13-27 June 2016
Deeley, S.M., N.J. Kalen, S.R. Freeze, E.L. Barr and W.M. Ford. 2021. Post-white-nose syndrome passive acoustic sampling effort for determining bat species occupancy within the mid-Atlantic region. Ecological Indicators 125 (2021) 107489 February 2021
Deeley, S., J.B. Johnson, W.M. Ford and J.E. Gates. 2021. White-nose syndrome-related changes to Mid-Atlantic bat communities across an urban-to-rural gradient. BMC Zoology (2021) 6:12 May 2021
Austin, L.V., A.S. Silvis, M.S. Muthersbaugh, K.E. Powers and W.M. Ford. 2018. Bat Activity Following Repeated Prescribed Fire in the Central Appalachians. Fire Ecology 14:10*
December 2018
Austin, L., A. Silvis, W.M. Ford, K.E. Powers and M. Muthersbaugh. 2017. Bat Activity Following Restoration Prescribed Burning in the Central Appalachian Upland and Riparian Habitats. Natural Areas Journal 38:183-195 April 2018
Austin, L., A. Silvis, W.M. Ford and K.E. Powers. 2019. Effects of historic wildfire and prescribed fire on site occupancy of bats in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. Journal of Forestry Research April 2019
Ford, W.M., J.B. Johnson, and M. Thomas-Van Gundy. 2021. Northern Long-Eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis) Day-Roost Loss in the Central Appalachian Mountains Following Prescribed Burning. International Journal of Forestry Research 6p. June 2021
Presentations Presentation Date
Taylor, H., K.E. Powers, W.D. Orndorff, R.J. Reynolds, and W.M. Ford. 2024. Tracking gray bat (Myotis grisescens) movement using Motus towers in southwest Virginia and northeast Tennessee. 34th Colloquium on Conservation of Mammals in the Southeast. Hilton Head, SC. Feb 16. February 2024
Moran, M.L., A.S. Litterer, J.L. De La Cruz, and W.M. Ford. 2024. Relative activity of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) along the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. 34th Colloquium of Conservation of Mammals in the Southeast. Hilton Head, SC. Feb. 16. February 2024
Litterer, A. and W.M. Ford. 2024. A Comparison of Estimates of Foraging Space Use of A Little Brown Bat Maternity Colony Using An Azimuthal Telemetry Model and Traditional Bi-angulation and Triangulation. 34th Colloquium on Conservation of Mammals in the Southeast. Hilton Head, SC. Feb. 16. February 2024
Kalen, N.J., A.S. Foy and W.M. Ford. 2024. Talus habitat and abundance modeling of eastern small-footed bats at Shenandoah National Park. 34th Colloquium on Conservation of Mammals in the Southeast. Hilton Head, SC. Feb. 16. February 2024
Blume, C., A. LItterer, and W.M. Ford. 2024. Changes in the nightly activity of northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) due to increased urban light intensity in Rock Creek Park, Washington D.C. 34th Colloquium on Conservation of Mammals in the Southeast. Hilton Head, SC. Feb. 16. February 2024
Freeze, S.R., S.M. Deeley and W.M. Ford. 2024. Roost Tree and Stand Conditions of the Endangered Northern Long-eared Bat (Myotis Septentrionalis) in the Mid-Atlantic with a Comparison between Marine Corps Base Quantico, VA, Prince William Forest Park, VA, and Rock Creek Park, D.C. 34th Colloquium on the Conservation of Mammals in the Southeast. Hilton Head, SC. Feb 16. February 2024
De La Cruz, J., S. Jones and W.M. Ford. 2024. Occupancy and relative abundance estimates of the endangered northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) on the Monongahela National Forest . 34th Colloquium on Conservation of Mammals in the Southeast. Hilton Head, SC. Feb. 16. February 2024
Theses and Dissertations Publication Date
Sweeten, S.E. 2015. The Effects of Microhabitat and Land Use on Stream Salamander Occupancy and Abundance in the Southwest Virginia Coalfields. PhD Dissertation, VPI & SU, Blacksburg. 231 p. May 2015
Silvis, A. 2014. Social Day-roosting Ecology of the Northern Long-eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis). PhD Dissertation. VPI&SU, Blacksburg. 163 p. March 2014
Nocera, T (2018) Assessing the long-term lmpacts of White-nose Syndrome on bat communities using acoustic surveys at Fort Drum Military Installation. MS Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg. p 133 May 2018
Muthersbaugh, M.S. 2018. Seasonal activity Patterns of Bats in the Central Appalachians. MS Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg. p 167 March 2018
Austin, L.V. 2017. Impacts of Fire on Bats in the Central Appalachians. MS Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University May 2017